John Erdmann, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss a case of symptomatic arthritis of the left hip and knee in a male successfully treated with applied kinesiology chiropractic care.

Clinical Features: This patient had experienced gout one year previous, and was taking two blood pressure medications, a herpes medication as needed, and glucosamine-chondroitin supplements. A symptom survey form was completed and found cardiovascular and parasympathetic areas to be primary. The method for determining this, or a discussion about the symptom survey’s validity as a measurement tool, is not described. An acoustic Cardio Graph showed a depressed S1 sound in all valves, and a decreased separation of the heart sounds at the aortic valve. Another observation, “liver and adrenal stress predominant in the mitral valve area” was not explained. A positive Ragland’s sign, and an acidic urinary and oral pH were present, as well as a positive zinc tally test.

Intervention and Outcome: The patient was adjusted on three visits in a two-week period focusing on spinal fixations. Kidney meridian acupressure and vitamin A supplementation was given. Chiropractic adjustments were given to the occiput, C1, L3 and sacrum, including Category I and II pelvic blocking. Cardio-Plus (S.P.), HCl acid, and zinc supplementation were also dispensed to the patient. Patient was restricted from eating corn as identified by a supraspinatus muscle weakening to lingual tasting of corn. On the second visit, the patient reported slight improvement. After three visits, the patient had no arthritic pain in his knees and hips. 3 weeks later the patient showed significant improvements on the Acoustic Cardio Graph and the patient remained symptomatic.

Conclusion:  Because applied kinesiology treats the entire person,the discovery of the precise mechanism of clinical improvement in a case like this one is difficult. However, there are many simultaneous physiological problems occurring in our patients, and it may be that treatment of all of these are required to restore the patient to full function. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:15-16)

Key Indexing Terms: Arthritis; Knee; Hip; Case Reports; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

John Erdmann, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss a patient presenting with numerous symptoms including low energy, shoulder, knee and heel pain.

Clinical Features: This 36-year-old male had asthma since childhood, flat feet, and is lactose intolerant. A symptom survey form found environmental and food sensitivity, B vitamin need, and adrenal dysfunction. An Acoustic Cardio Graph discovered aortic and mitral valve agitation associated with allergy and “adrenal spikes,” indicating possible cortisol imbalance. Ocular lock testing was positive, with positive TL to the atlas vertebra.

Intervention and Outcome: The patient was adjusted 9 times. The right acromio-clavicular joint was adjusted, the proximal ulnar and lunate bones also. Both feet were adjusted, with fascial flush and spindle cell techniques to the plantar fascia. The feet were taped after adjustment and the patient was instructed to tape his feet for the following 2 weeks. Nutritional support to the adrenal glands was given. He was instructed to avoid dairy, sugar, bread, and drink more water. By the 3rd visit the patient had no knee or heel pain. On the 8th visit, the patient remained free of pain with increased energy.

Conclusion: Because applied kinesiology treats the entire person, the discovery of the precise mechanism of clinical improvement in a case like this one is difficult. However, there are many simultaneous physiological problems occurring in our patients, and it may be that treatment of all of these are required to restore the patient to full function. The use of the “standard symptom survey form” and the Acoustic Cardio Graph in patient evaluation and treatment should receive further research since they were helpful in the case described here. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:17-18)

Key Indexing Terms: Abnormalities, Multiple; Case Reports; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

George N. Koffeman, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To describe a method of discovering subluxations that remain in the patient after all major corrections have been made.

Clinical Features: Using a DeJarnette (the founder of Sacro-Occipital Technique) occipital and upper trapezius chart, a method of therapy localization was devised to discover subluxations that, in the author’s experience, eliminated the subjective complaints patients sometimes have after major spinal corrections.

Intervention and Outcome: When a patient complains of a persisting pain after treatment, the author advises palpation of the upper trapezius and occipital fibers described in S.O.T. Where tenderness is elicited, the patient is asked to TL this point. If it weakens, the doctors challenges from coccyx to the occiput to find the area that abolishes the TL weakness. Correction of the subluxation found will abolish positive TL to the occipital or trapezius fiber. According to the author, this removes persisting pains in the patient by discovering and correcting remaining subluxations.

Conclusion: This system of analysis and treatment should be evaluated with outcome studies and other objective measurements of response to the treatment outlined here. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:23-24)

Key Indexing Terms: Clinical Protocols; Manipulation, Spinal; Kinesiology, Applied

David Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the applied kinesiology application of one of the findings of Vladimir Janda in his book “Muscles as a Pathogenic Factor in Back Pain.”

Clinical Features: Weakness of the flexor and/or extensor hallucis muscles of the foot can produce a short stride and a failure of the patient to toe-off during the gait cycle. According to Janda, a kinematic chain of muscles will be short or hypertonic as a result of mechanical problems. This can be demonstrated using AK MMT methods. This foot problem may produce hypertonicity of the gastrocnemius, hamstrings, thigh adductors, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, tensor fascia lata, some of the trunk extensors, especially in the upper lumbar and neck region, quadratus lumborum, the sternoclavicular portion of the pectoralis major, the upper part of the trapezius, levator scapulae, and flexors of the upper extremity.

Intervention and Outcome: Correction of the weak foot muscles, followed by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) activity to normalize and repattern the ankle and foot produces reflex normalization of the above muscles with resultant increased range of motion. Common foot problems causing the failure of normal great toe function include a posterior calcaneus, anterior talus, and separation of the tibia and fibula both proximally and distally.

Conclusion: The importance of foot evaluation and treatment for total body treatment is an important concept in applied kinesiology therapy, and is confirmed by some of the findings of Vladimir Janda. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:25-26)

Key Indexing Terms:  Foot Injuries; Muscle Hypertonia; Muscle Hypotonia; Gait; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Seung Won Lee, M.D., Ph.D., D.C., Je Woon Lee, M.D., Francis I. Park, D.P.M.

Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate the correction of asymmetry of the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP) by the intervention of applied kinesiology.

Clinical Features: A multidisciplinary clinic of AK, podiatry, and orthopedics selected 40 patients (11 males, 29 females) with RCSP asymmetries of more than 3 degrees who also had low back, pelvic, and lower extremity symptoms. Any patient with significant pathology that might contribute to RCSP problems was excluded from this study.

Intervention and Outcome: AK methods were used to treat the problems found including correction of muscles and joints of the spine, cranium, pelvis and lower limb, and gait problems. For the 40 patients, the mean asymmetry in the RCSP was 4.45 degrees. After AK treatment for 2 weeks there was an average change in RCSP of 1.62 degrees. It was found that patients who did not have significant change in RCSP after AK treatment had structural asymmetry that should be treated with the prescription of orthotic support.

Conclusion: AK has traditionally held that leg length inequality may produce, on the long leg side, foot pronation, internal tibial rotation, medial knee joint degenerative changes, medial rotation of the pelvis, iliopsoas tightness, piriformis tightness with sciatic impingement, etc. AK intervention may be beneficial not only for the structural asymmetry of the foot but also for some of the functional consequences that may be occurring as a result of this foot problem in some patients. This precise, elegant study should be repeated with a larger patient population and a control group for outcome comparisons. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:27-32)

Key Indexing Terms: Foot Deformities, Congenital; Foot Diseases; Evaluation Studies; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Robert A. Ozelio, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss a patient with migraine headaches successfully treated with the identification and elimination of food sensitivities using applied kinesiology chiropractic care.

Clinical Features: A 30-year-old male presents with intermittent and unpredictable migraine headaches. The patient also had non-migraine headaches several times a week. The patient completed a diet log for 7 days and he consumed a large quantity of dairy and wheat.

Intervention and Outcome: Muscular, cranial, and spinal manipulative therapy was employed following AK methods. AK methods to identify food sensitivities were also employed. The suspected food that was irritating the patient was placed in his mouth, and if a strong muscle weakened, the patient was considered to be potentially sensitive to that food. The patient proved to be sensitive to dairy and wheat. Removing these from his diet made some improvement for his headaches. He also consumed olive oil every day, and he was tested and found sensitive to olive oil, an unusual finding in the population. His headaches stopped completely after eliminating the olive oil. Other oils, such as butter, coconut butter and other fats were used instead.

Conclusion: In this patient, it was important to check for food sensitivity. The patient proved to be sensitive to a food item that is not usually written about in textbooks. The author suggests that doctors keep an open mind when evaluating food sensitivities, as this may be necessary to achieve success. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:35-36)

Key Indexing Terms: Migraine; Tension Headache; Food Hypersensitivity; Food Analysis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Jose Palomar Lever, M.D.

Abstract: Objective: To present a new method of diagnosis for the problem called “switching” in applied kinesiology, and a case series report is presented on 200 random patients using this method.

Clinical Features: Switching (also called neurologic disorganization) is of particular concern in the examination of patients because when switching is present, erroneous information may be derived from various testing procedures. A review of the standard AK methods for determining if a person is neurologically disorganized is presented. The method presented by the author does not require TL to points on the body, which prevents false-positive or false-negative test results due to the presence of other physical problems in the area of TL.

Intervention and Outcome: Using the principles developed in the “Brain Gym Handbook,” the author presents two images to the patient. The images are either two parallel lines, or two crossed lines in the shape of an X. 200 patients with positive TL to K-27 were also evaluated using this method. 164 of these patients had unpredictable muscle responses to testing. The character of these unpredictable findings was not described. These same 164 patients with positive TL to K-27 and unpredictable muscle responses on testing also showed a positive “X” and “ll” test, meaning that a previously strong indicator muscle remains strong after viewing the “ll” image and/or becomes weak with “X.”

Conclusion: Treatment is directed toward the factor that corrects the positive visual test. Correcting neurological disorganization makes manual muscle testing outcomes more predictable, thereby improving accurate diagnosis and treatment. The relationship of this method of diagnosis and treatment to specific patient morbidity and dysfunction will require further research. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:37-40)

Key Indexing Terms: Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological; Evaluation Studies; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Bruce Shin, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss a case of low back pain with sciatica with no history of trauma, except a recent bump of the patient’s head against a wall.

Clinical Features: A 55-year-old female complains of sudden onset of low back pain and sciatica. Normal lumbar ROM was noted, but with stiffness; Kemp’s sign was negative, but the straight leg raise test was positive on the right due to tight hamstrings.

During AK examination, diagnosis of an open ileocecal valve and a hidden cervical disc were made. A few days prior to the onset of the back pain the patient had a night of abnormal alcohol intake and nuts at a bar.

Intervention and Outcome: Chapman’s reflexes for the open ICV were stimulated at upper 3″ of the right arm, posterior lamina of C3, inferior to the right ASIS, the Bennett’s neurovascular reflex for the ICV between the ASIS and umbilicus. The Luo points at KI-5 on the right and BL 58 on the left were stimulated. Vertebral subluxations of C5 and L1 were challenged and adjusted accordingly. Due to the bump on her head a few days prior to the low back pain onset, the ICV stress receptors were challenged and adjusted. A hidden cervical disc was located at the level of C3, and adjusted. This correction relieved the calf pain almost instantly. All of the originally weak muscles found on examination were now strong.

Conclusion: In some patients, biochemical disturbances may be seriously affecting the structural components in the body. Subluxations and other tissue aberrancies found in AK examination may disrupt the biochemistry of the body and may also cause subluxations to recur. A thorough, whole-body examination may be needed to adequately correct cases with low back pain and sciatica. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:41-42)

Key Indexing Terms: Low Back Pain; Sciatica; Ileocecal Valve; Intervertebral Disc Displacement; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Bruce Shin, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the benefits of examining the meridian system of traditional Chinese medicine for a case of shoulder pain.

Clinical Features: A 40-year-old female presents with right shoulder pain of a few weeks duration. No trauma to the shoulder was revealed in the patient’s history. Movement of the shoulder produced a mild “boring” pain. The drop arm test, shoulder apprehension, and Wright’s test were all negative. The only muscle weakness was in the subscapularis on the right. Pulse point TL diagnosis was positive at the left distal pulse point. Correlating muscles of the small intestine and heart were tested, showing only a weak right subscapularis. The alarm point for the heart did not strengthen the muscle.

Intervention and Outcome: The examiner went backwards on the 24-hour clock, classically described in traditional Chinese medicine, to the lung alarm point, which strengthened the weak subscapularis muscle. T3 was challenged and corrected. LI-6, the Luo point, was stimulated to balance the flow of energy. The patient’s shoulder pain was resolved by the end of treatment.

Conclusion: The author points out that symptoms anywhere in the body may be connected to the meridian system. Meridians carry energy from one meridian to the next every 2 hours. If there is a blockage in the energy to prevent proper flow, symptoms can occur. Pulse point diagnosis is recommended as a part of the regular AK diagnostic workup of every patient. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:43-44)

Key Indexing Terms: Medicine, Chinese Traditional; Shoulder Pain; Meridians; Acupuncture Therapy; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., B.S., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present information on the increase in anterior cruciate ligament knee injuries in women, and to present additional information about some of the overlooked causes and treatment methods for this sometimes devastating injury.

Clinical Features: Research literature is reviewed, and some of the causative factors in women are listed: wider hips, hormonal changes at certain times of the menstrual cycle, the smaller size of the A.C.L. and of the notch through which it connects to the femur in the upper leg. Women also begin to play sports at a later age, tend to land in a more upright position than men when jumping, with their knees turned more inwardly. When jumping and cutting, women depend more on the quadriceps muscles which pulls the shinbone forward and tightens the anterior cruciate ligament, while men rely more on their hamstrings which provide more backward draw and pressure on the posterior cruciate ligament. Muscular factors that control the angle of pull into the knee joint complex during activity are described. The importance of balance in the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles for proper patella tracking is cited as critical factors in balanced function of the knee. The balance of the divisions of the hamstrings is also of great importance in this problem. The sartorius and gracilis, popliteus, tensor fascia lata and gluteus maximus muscles are also reviewed in relationship to this problem.

Intervention and Outcome: Several particular tests developed in AK are invaluable in correcting injuries to the knee. These are: reactive muscles, ligament stretch reactions, repeated muscle activation patient induced problems, contributing foot problems, category 2 pelvic faults, TMJ dysfunction that is often related to the category 2 pelvic fault,and cranial faults that can lead to muscular weakness with respiration.

Conclusion: Using traditional orthopedic and AK diagnosis and treatment methods for A.C.L. injuries and for their prevention increase the success for physicians who treat this problem. It is suggested by the author that treatment of athletic women using these methods would greatly reduce the likelihood of A.C.L. tears. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:45-49)

Key Indexing Terms: Anterior Cruciate Ligament; Knee Injuries; Diagnosis, Differential; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Juli Tooley, D.C., D.I.C.C.P.

Abstract: Objective: To describe the case of a young female with a sprain-strain injury that produced acute left neck, shoulder, and arm pain.

Clinical Features: An 11-year-old female was pushed off a fire hydrant the previous day. She caught her fall on an adjacent fence that created a strain in her left shoulder and left neck. On examination, left cervical rotation was very painful and limited, and left shoulder abduction was slightly limited. All the muscles of her neck and left shoulder were facilitated, except for the levator scapula. A strengthening effect occurred with TL to the insertion of the Golgi tendon organ and the insertion of the muscle. Oral nutrient testing of a supplement for ligament support produced strengthening of the muscle also. When the patient was asked to visualize the event and the boy who pushed her off the fire hydrant, a previously strong indicator muscle became inhibited.

Intervention and Outcome: Chiropractic manipulative therapy was given to the 6th cervical, 12th thoracic, and 5th lumbar vertebrae.  Origin/insertion technique was applied to the insertion of the left levator scapula (i.e. approximating the origin and insertion). The Golgi tendon organ of the left levator scapula was corrected by directing pressure toward the belly of the muscle. The emotional neurovascular reflexes were contacted and the patient asked to “picture” the incident and the boy who pushed her until an equal pulse was felt under the author’s fingertips. The patient was given a nutritional support for ligament injury. Immediately following the origin/insertion and GTO technique to the left levator scapula muscle and adjustment of the 6th cervical vertebrae, the patient could actively rotate her head equally in both directions, and the pain was gone with full range of motion in the arm and shoulder restored.

Conclusion: Whole body treatment involving the structural, chemical, and emotional components affecting a patient may sometimes be needed. The author argues that AK allows the physician to diagnose the need for such treatment, supply the treatment, and observe whether or not the results of treatment have been effective in solving the patient’s problem. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:51-54)

Key Indexing Terms: Sprains and Strains; Shoulder; Neck; Diagnosis, Differential; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Juli Tooley, D.C., D.I.C.C.P.

Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a female with back pain and left thumb pain that was successfully treated in one visit using AK meridian therapy procedures.

Clinical Features: A 52-year-old female with left dorsolumbar and thumb pain presented with no history of trauma (back pain rated at 7-8, and thumb pain 4-5 on a 1-10 scale). The patient has a severe S-type scoliosis that developed in early childhood and has been under chiropractic care for most of her life. Pulse point diagnosis was employed to locate her primary deficient meridian. In AK, there are 6 traditional pulse points that TL on each wrist, 3 superficial and three deep. The scanning of pulse points utilizing MMT and TL ascertains which meridian is currently the patient’s weakest link and directs treatment toward improving this factor. The active pulse point in this case was the kidney and bladder meridians. Muscles related to these meridians – tibialis anterior for the bladder and psoas for the kidney – were tested. The psoas was found inhibited on the left, and TL to the left kidney alarm point caused the left psoas to become strong.

Intervention and Outcome: The tonification point for the kidney meridian (KI7) was stimulated for 15-20 seconds using a low frequency infrared laser. The associated point for the kidney on the spine at the L2/L3 level was found subluxated and corrected with a chiropractic adjustment. The extraspinal articulation closest to the tonification point for the kidney on the left ankle showed a subluxation of the talus, which was adjusted.  The left psoas muscle tested strong after this treatment. The patient experienced an immediate increase in dorsolumbar ROM and a marked decrease in pain that was now a 0 or 1 on the 1-10 scale.

Conclusion: This case demonstrated that using AK methods of MMT, TL, and pulse point diagnosis could help diagnose the cause of a patient’s discomfort and impaired function. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:55-58)

Key Indexing Terms: Back Pain; Acupuncture Therapy; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

John K. Wittle, B.S.N., D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case of chronic low back pain following an injury in 1975 that was successfully ameliorated using AK therapy.

Clinical Features: A male patient was injured playing basketball in 1975, and was put in traction at that time. Since then he has experienced episodes of acute low back spasm caused by very slight movements: in the presentation described here, bending over to plug a cord into his laptop computer produced his acute low back pain, with a left antalgic lean and abnormal gait.

Intervention and Outcome: A right lateral L5 disc correction (diagnosed using AK MMT methods), as well as a T7 and left occiput subluxation corrections were made. Reflex treatment and muscle work were performed for the psoas muscles and the right multifidus. Oral nutrient testing showed a need of nutrients for an inflammatory problem and disc support with additional selenium. Patient was seen one-week later reporting improvements. “This was the quickest resolve I’ve ever had.” The L5 disc was adjusted again as well as a category II pelvic fault. The following week the patient showed no disc involvement and continued improvement. He was seen 4 additional times in a 5-month period dealing primarily with category II faults. He reported feeling great with only occasional discomfort even with stress.

Conclusion: With the use of AK as a diagnostic method, the patient has experienced the most beneficial results in the 25 years since his original injury. The use of AK in cases of low back injury as a result of trauma may result in improved treatment outcomes for the chiropractic physician. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:65-66)

Key Indexing Terms: Low Back Pain; Intervertebral Disc Displacement; Case Reports; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Donald C. Baker, D.C., N.M.D.

Abstract: Objective: This paper reviews several basic aspects of AK MMT processes, related scientific studies, basic definitions and terminology relating to MMT.

Clinical Features: Three types of MMT are occasionally described in the AK literature. Type 1 testing is when the physician begins the test and the patient resists this force. In Type 2 testing, the patient comes to a maximum contraction at which time the physician adds additional force. In Type 3 testing the patient is not allowed to come to maximum force; before he does so, the physician applies additional force attempting to move the muscle into eccentric contraction. Graphical representations of these three types of tests are presented, and a mathematical model of the three types of MMT is described.

Intervention and Outcome: Mathematically or graphically, what is being measured during a MMT is the differential of force with respect to displacement. A differential of force with respect to displacement would be the slope of the curve of force versus displacement on a graph that measured the muscle test. If the muscle “locks” there would be little change in displacement for a relatively large change in force. The quality being measured during an AK MMT is a dynamic curve of neuromuscular function; it is not a static value such as the muscle’s absolute contractile strength.

Conclusion: Goodheart, Walther, Gerz, Schmitt, Maffetone, and many others have noted that speaking of “muscle strength” alone does not characterize all the variables of an AK MMT. Further, attempts to objectify AK MMT results with instruments that simply measure muscle strength have met with limited success. The reason appears to be that you cannot evaluate a dynamic process (e.g. dF/dx, the rate of change of force with respect to displacement) with a single static measurement like that produced by a force transducer. Guyton states that the contractile strength of a muscle is a single value not descriptive of a dynamic process. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:69-74)

Key Indexing Terms: Myography; Review Literature; Terminology; Research Design; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Donald C. Baker, D.C., N.M.D.

Abstract: Objective: This paper considers whether excess tissue acidity and hypochlorhydria may co-exist. AK clinical procedures to diagnose and treat this functional pattern are described.

Clinical Features: Aldosterone deficiency is one possible cause of mild tissue acidosis. The function of aldosterone is the reabsorption of sodium and the secretion of potassium by the kidneys. A secondary function of aldosterone is the secretion of hydrogen ions by the kidney tubules. The reduced section of hydrogen ions in cases of aldosterone deficiency (caused by adrenal stress disorders) may reduce the secretory action of the parietal cells in the stomach. Receptors for aldosterone have been found in the stomach. The relationship between adrenal function and the stomach based on the work of Hans Selye is described. A hypothesis linking aldosterone disturbances to lowered hydrochloric acid levels and excess acidity in the extracellular fluids of the body is made.

Intervention and Outcome: In clinical practice this may mean that there are situations where the patient should be advised to reduce tissue acidity (by recommending alkaline ash diet, supplementation with alkaline ash minerals, etc.), and at the same time the patient may need supplementation with hydrochloric acid with meals in order to assist gastric function.

Conclusion: It is proposed in this paper that a finding of excess tissue acidity does not rule out hypochlorhydria, or vice versa. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:75-78)

Key Indexing Terms: Achlorhydria; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Buffers; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Scott C. Cuthbert, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: A case-series of 12 children with Down syndrome is presented. This study describes these children’s histories, their clinical findings, and their evaluation and treatment using applied kinesiology methods.

Clinical Features: Down syndrome is the most common readily identifiable cause of intellectual disability, accounting for almost one-third of all cases. It occurs equally in all races with an overall incidence of approximately 1 in 800 births. Congenital heart disease affects 40% of these babies. Severe congenital heart disease remains a major killer of children with Down syndrome, despite advances in surgical treatment. In the absence of a congenital heart defect, the majority of patients can expect to live into their sixth decade. Up to 15% of children with Down syndrome will have radiological evidence of instability of the atlanto-axial joint, but in only a handful of cases will this instability result in an impingement of the spinal cord with resultant neurological signs. It occurs equally in all races with an overall incidence of approximately 1 in 800 births; approximately 4,000 children with Down syndrome are born each year. Children with Down syndrome will be developmentally slower than their siblings and peers and have intellectual functioning in the moderately disabled range, but the range is enormous and the distance from their peers is the crucial factor. This is why the author argues that chiropractic therapeutics can make a profound difference.

Intervention and Outcome: Following applied kinesiology spinal and cranial bone treatment these children’s ability to move, to crawl, to breathe through breathe through the nose, to use their hands and feet together and their tongue with improved fine motor skills showed significant improvement.

Conclusion: Further studies into applied kinesiology and cranial bone manipulative treatments for Down syndrome are indicated to evaluate whether this case study can be representative of a group of patients who might benefit from this care. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:83-94)

Key Indexing Terms: Down Syndrome; Child; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Scott C. Cuthbert, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To describe the importance of myofascial dysfunction to human function, and to present the AK methods of evaluation and treatment of myofascial dysfunction.

Clinical Features: A major source of complexity in the practical application of applied kinesiology procedures is that no muscle exists in isolation, and frequently no single factor produces weakness on MMT.    If a muscle has been weak for a long time, there will probably be many of the 5 factors of the IVF that are active in the muscle as well as the local muscle dysfunction.  The additional problems are likely due to the body’s adaptation to the original factor causing the problem.  It has been consistently demonstrated in applied kinesiology that muscular dysfunction is not a simple, localized musculoskeletal disorder.  Rather, it ties local musculoskeletal dysfunctions to a variety of other phenomena including pain, increased neurologic confusion, autonomic arousal, visceral dysfunction and disease and, by implication, decreases in the effectiveness of the endocrine and the immune systems.


Intervention and Outcome: The distinct methods of diagnosis in AK for the different myofascial problems originally described by Drs. Travell, Jones, Rolf, and Fulford are presented. Their treatment using a mechanical devise, called the percussor, is described.

Conclusion: Myofascial changes occur when mechanical, chemical, or emotional stresses remain in place in the patient’s body for extended periods.  What begins as changed muscle tone as the body adapts to these stressors progresses to structural changes in the connective tissue elements that surround and supplement the muscle fibers involved in the adaptation.  The suggestion is made that to effectively repair the faulty “tissue tone” that is found in chiropractic patients then we must effectively repair the imbalanced myofascia that is present. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:95-103)

Key Indexing Terms: Fascia; Myofascial Pain Syndromes; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Datis Kharrazian, D.C., M.S., C.N.S., C.C.N., C.S.C.S., C.C.S.P.

Abstract: Objective: To present the complex interactions that takes place between the gastrointestinal track and the other major systems in the body, and to review diagnostic methods and treatment strategies.

Clinical Features: An extensive review of the research literature shows how gastrointestinal inflammation may impair the function of the thyroid gland; induce insulin insensitivity, adrenal stress syndrome, hypoglycemia; disturb the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain; up-regulate the immune system; induce megablastic anemia; cause DNA damage, produce oxidative stress, autoimmune disease, estrogen dominance; and produce depression, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, intestinal permeability and food sensitivities. The metabolic pathways of these mechanisms are elaborated.

Intervention and Outcome: A review of the functional medical tests related to the gastrointestinal tract is given. The author argues that the combination of laboratory tests and AK evaluations give the clinician many other objective tools to make the diagnosis and to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Many treatment options are discussed, and the most effective are ones that include dietary and lifestyle changes, nutritional and herbal supplementation (even pharmaceutical medications at times), and treatments that optimize neurological inputs involving different aspects of the 5 factors of the IVF. A “4R Program” is delineated, which stands for remove, reinoculate, replace, and repair the gastrointestinal tract.

Conclusion: This elegant literature review shows that gastrointestinal disorders have far reaching impacts on human physiology. Every major system suffers when the gastrointestinal tract is not healthy. The tools in AK and functional laboratory tests help clinicians assess and treat these dysfunctions. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:117-136)

Key Indexing Terms: Gastrointestinal Tract; Intestinal Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Datis Kharrazian, D.C., M.S., C.N.S., C.C.N., C.S.C.S., C.C.S.P.

Abstract: Objective: To review male hormone disorders and the clinical signs and symptoms of andropause; the influence of testosterone on human physiology; male hormone laboratory profiles; and AK and nutritional protocols to manage male hormone disorders.

Clinical Features: The term andropause refers to the time when the production of androgen dominant hormones declines. A review of its symptoms and signs is given. The most common cause of functional andropause occurs when the ratio between serum levels of testosterone and estrogen changes.  This problem may be due to increased levels of xenoestrogens and exotoxins in the environment, increased stress, decreased essential fatty acids in our diets, and decreased hepatic detoxification. The identification of andropause is commonly overlooked because there is a slow and gradual drop of testosterone compared to the female menopause. In addition, the managed-care health system does not look favorably into routinely measuring hormone levels in men who do not have serious endocrinological dysfunction. The influence of testosterone upon: 1) cardiovascular function, 2) energy and red blood cell production, 3) bone density, 4) the prostate, 5) body mass, 6) the libido, 7) mood and depression, is described in detail.

Intervention and Outcome: Male hormone laboratory testing (salivary male hormone profile) is outlined. AK MMT also provides the clinician with information that cannot be evaluated by laboratory tests, such as which systems are a priority in therapy or which nutrients will be the most effective for the patient. A vitamin B6 deficiency is described that may explain why there are symptoms of estrogen dominance. Treatment to modify estrogen metabolism; stimulate testosterone synthesis; optimize the pituitary-hypothalamic axis; improve gastrointestinal dysfunction; optimize liver detoxification; and dietary advise for andropause are described in depth.

Conclusion: Male hormone disorders may be one of the most overlooked dysfunctions in health care today. This paper offers protocols for the evaluation and treatment of this sometimes unrecognized and untreated condition that affects _ of the population. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:137-156)

Key Indexing Terms: Andropause; Testosterone; Estrogen; Dehydroepiandrosterone; Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

David Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: This paper describes the importance of the transverse abdominal muscle and presents a MMT that can be used to measure the strength of the muscle. Treatment for the muscle’s inhibition and an exercise program for strengthening the muscle are described.

Clinical Features: The MMT of the transverse abdominal is performed by elevating the legs of the supine patient until they are flexed 15 degrees or approximately 12 inches off the table, and then the legs are moved 10 degrees off the center line of the patient’s trunk. The test pressure is directed to bring the legs to the centerline of the table.

Intervention and Outcome: The most common cause of weakness found by the author is an imbalance of the ribs to which the muscle is attached. In cases of low back problems, the diaphragm (rib expansion) and the muscles of the pelvic floor should be tested and corrected if inhibited. AK treatment of these factors is reviewed. Instructions are given for this muscle’s rehabilitation that has the patient expire and pull their umbilicus toward their spine and hold it for a count of ten, to be repeated five times a day.

Conclusion: The function of the transverse abdominal is essential to the stabilization of the lumbar spine. Imbalances of the inner and outer muscle systems of the pelvis are effectively corrected by these methods. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:157-159)

Key Indexing Terms: Abdominal Muscles; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Seung Won Lee, M.D., Ph.D., D.C., Je Woon Lee, M.D., Francis I. Park, D.P.M.

Abstract: Objective: To identify when the application of a permanent semi-rigid orthotic will be necessary in cases of excessive foot pronation syndromes.

Clinical Features: 50 patients (14 males, 36 females) were selected from a combined chiropractic, podiatric, and orthopedic medical practice who had excessive pronation of the foot as well as symptoms and signs in the spine, pelvis, or feet. AK and podiatric measurements diagnosed the excessive foot pronation. The total range of motion of the subtalar joint was measured using podiatric standard methodology. The shock absorber test, weight bearing test, gait analysis, and biomechanical examination of single limb stance was done on the initial examination of every patient.

Intervention and Outcome: All patients were treated with standard, whole body AK treatments for 2 months. Two groups were delineated from the study’s results. 23 patients achieved significant correction of both excessive pronation with improved symptoms and signs by AK intervention with or without temporary use of a modular type of semiflexible orthotic support. 27 patients were not successful by the treatment of AK methodology but were recommended long-term application of semi-rigid orthotic support. The differentiating factor that was consistent with these two groups was the total range of motion in the subtalar joint. The 23 patients successfully treated with AK had an average subtalar ROM of 42.30 +/- 6.74 degrees. The 27 patients requiring semi-rigid orthotic support had an average subtalar ROM of 55.59 +/- 7.99 degrees. The angle of single limb stance of the 23 patients was 9.39 +/- 2.81 degrees and that of the 27 patients was 11.70 +/- 2.14 degrees.

Conclusion: From this comprehensive study on chiropractic treatment of foot dysfunction, is was concluded that more than 50 degrees of passive range of motion of the subtalar joint will be correlated with the application of orthotic support in patients with excessive foot pronation. Larger patient numbers in a controlled clinical trial should be conducted to confirm these findings. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:161-170)

Key Indexing Terms: Flatfoot; Pes Planus; Orthotic Devices; Podiatry; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Eric Pierotti, D.C., D.O., Ch.D (Adel)

Abstract: Objective: To introduce the author’s discovery of a specific muscle inhibition related to several specific symphysis pubis subluxations with corrective and rehabilitative procedures offered.

Clinical Features: The biomechanics of the symphysis pubis and pelvis is reviewed. The author correlates a bilateral weakness of the quadriceps muscle group with a number of symphysis pubis subluxations. The test for this has the patient supine, the leg flexed to 45 degrees and the knee in full extension. The opposite leg remains flat on the examining table. A posterior tilt of the pelvis will be found on postural examination in these cases. In 50 patients with symptoms of symphysis pubis subluxations (urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria and dyspareunia, and pain in the pubic area, usually associated with trauma to the area or with diastasis of pregnancy), this bilateral inhibition of the quadriceps muscle was found. TL to the pubis will negate the weakness of the quadriceps group test. The etiology of this finding is explained by pregnancy because within 24 hours of parturition the blood levels of relaxin reduce markedly and ligaments begin to tighten regardless of joint position, even if the symphysis is in a separated or sheared position.

Intervention and Outcome: A specific protocol for correction of this subluxation is given, as well as rehabilitative exercises.

Conclusion: The author states that this condition is multifactorial, and that the protocol offered here is the structural component of this problem. The chemical and emotional sides of this condition should be evaluated and corrected as well. Because the number of women who experience back pain after pregnancy and who see chiropractors for the problem, further research into this method of therapy should be conducted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:171-182)

Key Indexing Terms: Pubic Symphysis Diastasis; Pregnancy; Sprains and Strains; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To present concepts from the author’s work on “links between the nervous system and the body chemistry” showing specific sensory receptor challenge procedures that parallel oral challenges with hormones, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter-related drugs, and nutrients (vitamins, minerals, and amino acids).

Clinical Features: AK assessment is a series of sensory receptor based diagnostic challenges followed by the measurement of subsequent motor activity (MMT outcomes). Clinical decisions on what therapies to administer are based on sensory receptor challenges and MMT outcomes which, combined with other assessment procedures (history, laboratory, other exam findings, etc.), guide the clinician on what is most appropriate for that patient. Articles are reviewed that were written in the 1980s showing parallels between specific neuromuscular and postural patterns (MMT outcomes) and specific biochemical patterns in the patient. The specific sensory receptor challenges and their interpretation from that body of research are summarized.

Intervention and Outcome: The concepts/challenges reviewed are: “Centering the spine”; GV21 challenges; 4 body quadrant and electrolytes; TMJ protrusion and retrusion challenges; autonomic challenges; epinephrine challenge; endocrine Chapman’s reflexes and tonic labyrinthine reflexes challenges; visceral referred pain challenges; fats and nitric oxide challenges; type 2 and 3 ligament receptor challenges; and foods, chemical, and heavy metal challenges.

Conclusion: This paper demonstrates that there are links between the nervous system, the muscular system, and body chemistry. The links may be observed by specific sensory receptor challenges and subsequent MMT outcomes that parallel gustatory challenges. Controlled clinical trials of these concepts are warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:183-191)

Key Indexing Terms: Biochemistry; Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine; Lingual Nerve; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., B.S., D.I.BA.K.

Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate the effect of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) by measuring its effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Features: TFT is the discovery of Roger Callahan, Ph.D., who uses MMT methods for the treatment of emotional problems such as phobia, anger, bad habits, anxiety, guilt, grief, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders. A presentation of the premises and protocols of TFT is given.

Intervention and Outcome: 106 patients participated in this study, 64 females and 42 males. Five autonomic nervous system measurements were made before and after TFT treatments. These were passive range of motion of the hip joints bilaterally, blood pressure, pulse rate, oral pH, and body temperature. The results were as follows. Median ROM before TFT was 89.62 degrees, and 107.66 degrees after treatment. Every patient showed an improvement in ROM. The blood pressure change was a median decrease in systolic pressure of 4.03 mm Hg, and 4.68 mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure after TFT. Pulse rate changes showed a median decrease of 4.8 beats. The median oral pH changes were not given. An average temperature increase of .728 degrees occurred in 70 patients, and a decrease of .428 degrees in 28 patients.

Conclusion: According to this author’s interpretation of the measurements used, TFT has a beneficial effect on the autonomic nervous system of patients. The author reports anecdotally that this system of therapy has positive emotional effects on his patients also. The mathematical presentation of this study should be repeated with greater controls and with other blinded physicians conducting the therapy to determine the effect of this treatment system in other clinical settings. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:203-215)

Key Indexing Terms: Emotions; Mental Disorders; Mental Healing; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

Steven Zodkoy, D.C., D.A.C.B.N., C.C.N., C.N.S.

Abstract: Objective: To present a theory and treatment protocol for patients with migraine headaches.

Clinical Features: A review of the clinical and nutritional literature related to migraine is presented. This review demonstrates that an accumulation of endotoxins and exotoxins may overburden the liver in migraine cases, followed by an increase in the blood levels of these toxins that act as a stimulus to the intracranial vascular system producing the headaches. This literature review suggests also that nutritional deficiencies of magnesium, superoxide dismutase, and tryptophan are present in migraine patients, and oral supplementation of these nutrients have proven to be an effective prophylactic. Dietary factors including artificial coloring, flavoring, caffeine, alcohol, and preservatives are triggering mechanisms that also and require liver detoxification.

Intervention and Outcome: The author states that positive TL to the liver alarm point is positive in these patients. The nutrient testing described in this paper are: zinc tally, salivary pH, urine pH, vitamin C urine test, calcium urine test, Koenigsburg test for the adrenal glands, 3-hydroxy indol indican urine test (bowel dysbiosis), and cellular oxidation-reduction in urine (aldehyde formation from free radicals). Patients with this pattern of liver detoxification problems with migraines caused by endotoxins and exotoxins will be positive on these tests. Nutritional supplementation approaches found by the author to be effective in these patients are presented.

Conclusion: A review of the nutritional literature on migraine shows that nutritional supplementation may be effective in the treatment of migraine headaches. Controlled clinical trials using this method of diagnosis and treatment are needed since millions of patients suffer from this painful, sometimes debilitating condition. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:233-240)

Key Indexing Terms: Migraine Disorders; Review Literature; Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System; Nutrition; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., B.S., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a method of treatment that corrected numerous cranial faults in this study population that are described in AK.

Clinical Features: 250 patients who were diagnosed with cranial faults or TMJ dysfunction were chosen for this study.

Intervention and Outcome: The author placed his hands behind the patient’s head and asked the patient to press their neck and head into extension while breathing in. Then the patient was asked to press their neck and head into flexion while exhaling. The author resisted this movement, and the patient repeated this movement 5 times. The author found that this simple technique corrected the standard types of cranial faults described in AK.

Conclusion: The individual presentations of these cases were not described, nor the method of evaluation precisely outlined so that bias, error, inconsistency, etc. could be ruled out. However, this simple method of treatment is claimed to have far-reaching positive benefits upon patients, and so clinical trial more objectively designed should be conducted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2002-2003;1:243-245)

Key Indexing Terms: Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological; Evaluation Studies; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

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