Neurology India 2003 Apr ; 51(2): 167-75
ABSTRACT: Dopaminerigic replacement therapy with levodopa/carbidopais still the cornerstone for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the medical management of PD is complicated by the appearance of disabling motor response fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesias and psychosis. Since the early 1990s, surgical therapies have made a rapid reentry into the therapeutic armamentarium for PD and deep brain stimulation(DBS) of the globus pallidus interna or subthalamic nuclei is currently the most promising of such interventions. Recognition of the physiological changes in basal ganglia circuits in animal models of PD has provided the much needed theoretic basis for targeting these areas. DBS of these areas has proven to be a safe procedure and effective against all themajor motor symptoms of PD. Though not curative it can substantially reduce motor response fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and improve the quality of life of these patients. DBS is an expensive treatment and hardware related complications are not rare. The results of the procedure are dependent on careful patient selection and the experience of the performing team. An update on the principles, methods and results of such procedures is essential to raise the awareness of this new therapeutic modality and to provide guidelines to the referring physicians.