FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EVALUATION
Richard Belli, D.C., D.A.C.N.B.

Abstract: Objective: This study investigates the clinical utility of testing functional systems within the central nervous system, compared to testing individual motor nerves with manual muscle testing.

Design: Private practice.

Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool.

Methods: Chiropractic management was decided on by the treating chiropractor. A series of twelve tests were designed to discover disorders of functional systems within the CNS.  The tests described were to evaluate the function of 12 systems: 1) spinal cord, 2) myelencephalon/reticular formation, 3) vagal system, 4) trigeminal motor system-muscles of mastication, 5) vestibulospinal system, and bulbo reticular area, 6) reticular formation, 7) diencephalons and gait locomotion system, 8) mesencephalon, 9) cardiac sympathetic autonomic system, 10) pyramidal system, 11) limbic system, 12) sensory system.

Results: This chiropractic approach tests the nervous system after provocation of functional systems instead of sensory challenges to more discreet portions of the body.

Conclusion: For chiropractic patients who are not responding to discreet treatment programs, this method of evaluation may be valuable as it tests underlying system problems within the CNS. Nearly all the functional systems have a related motor activity that results in inhibition and facilitation patterns. Case series evaluations of this method should be made. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:1-5)

Key Indexing Terms: Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic; Muscle Weakness; Nervous System; Evaluation Studies

THE ROLE OF THE ANTERIOR FIFTH LUMBAR IN HAMMER TOES AND DISEQUILIBRIUM – A CASE STUDY
Harlan Browning, D.C., C.C.N., D.C.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss a case of foot pain, foot joint subluxation, and hammertoes that produced low back pain and equilibrium problems for 35 years.

Clinical Features: A fifty-five year old woman presented with a thirty-five year history of bilateral foot problems and equilibrium problems. Hammertoes were evident preventing the second through fifth toes from contacting the ground when she stood, making her unsteady on her feet.

Intervention and Outcome: An anterior L5 subluxation was corrected, as were cervical and thoracic subluxations. The calcaneus and talus bones were manipulated bilaterally and then taped for stability.  The author states that an anterior fifth lumbar frequently produces pains below the knee. After treatment, the patient was contacted at her home. She reported that her toes were closer to the ground while standing and her balance had improved. At her follow up visit her toes felt normal to her, and she was able to wear open toed shoes (her feet were “unsightly” and “embarrassing” to her, and so she kept them covered). Over the following three weeks her balance during yoga classes and her foot pain improved.

Conclusion: The anterior fifth lumbar subluxation may be responsible for foot dysfunctions. Functional tests in applied kinesiology can be employed to determine whether the involved lumbar subluxation is producing pain and muscle weakness or joint restrictions in the feet. Treatment directed at both the lumbar spine and the feet using applied kinesiology may result in improved function and reduction of pain in the feet. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:7-8)

Key Indexing Terms: Kinesiology, Applied; Hallux Valgus; Hammertoe Syndrome; Foot, Pain; Musculoskeletal Manipulations

CORRECTION OF CRANIAL NERVE NEUROPATHY USING APPLIED KINESIOLOGY CHIROPRACTIC CARE: A CASE STUDY OF THE TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION
Scott Cuthbert, B.C.A.O., D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present an overview of possible effects of Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) and to offer chiropractic approaches and theories for treatment of a patient with severe visual dysfunction complicated by ACM.

Clinical Features: A young woman had complex optic nerve neuritis exacerbated by an ACM (Type I) of the brain.

Intervention and Outcome: Applied kinesiology chiropractic treatment of the spine and cranium was used for treatment of loss of vision and nystagmus. After treatment, the patient’s ability to see, read, and perform smooth eye tracking showed significant and lasting improvement.

Conclusion: Further studies into applied kinesiology and cranial treatments for visual dysfunctions associated with ACM may be helpful to evaluate whether this single case study can be representative of a group of patients who might benefit from this care. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:9-18) (J Manipulative Physiological Ther 2005;28:289)

Key Indexing Terms: Chiropractic; Vision; Arnold-Chiari Malformation (Type I); Muscle Weakness; Cranial Neuropathies

THE TEMPORAL BONE CRANIAL FAULT: A RESUME OF ‘THE TROUBLE MAKER’ WITH A FOCUS ON THE PROPRIOCEPTIVE AND VESTIBULO-OCULAR SYNDROMES
Scott Cuthbert, B.C.A.O., D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To determine whether the temporal bone cranial fault increases difficulties in proprioception, equilibrium, and in the integration of the sensory inputs from the eyes, ears, muscles and joints.

Methods: The clinical histories of sixty-five patients with a temporal bone cranial fault were reviewed. These patients underwent a thorough consultation and applied kinesiology examination, which included specific proprioceptive and equilibrium testing to evaluate for problems in this area. The author reviewed the literature on the integration of the vestibular, visual righting, and head-on-neck reflexes, and the importance of their proper integration by the CNS. The neurological integration of these reflexes from peripheral receptors was explored.

Results: The temporal bone cranial fault is hypothesized to disturb the geometry and function of the vestibulo-ocular, vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Opto-kinetic reflex disturbances (diagnosed with ‘ocular lock testing’ in applied kinesiology methodology), may also be involved in cranial faults, further disturbing equilibrium function in patients.

Conclusion: Cranial faults, muscle inhibitions, vertebral subluxations, and equilibrium syndromes may be associated via the sensory conflict hypothesis, also called dysponesia. Further research into which of these reflex systems is the critical factor in successful treatment is warranted. Cranial evaluation and treatment are a significant component in equilibrium syndromes. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:19-31)

Key Indexing Terms: Temporal Bone; Cranial Neuropathies; Chiropractic; Diagnosis; Treatment; Proprioception; Vestibular Function Tests; Vestibular Apparatus

MUSCLE ACTIVATION TECHNIQUE
Simon J. King, B.App.Sc.(Chiro), D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: This article demonstrated a method of identifying an inhibited muscle by contracting it, and simultaneously testing a normotonic muscle that subsequently becomes inhibited.

Methods: The author describes another method for discovery of inhibited muscles in the body that can be used by manual muscle testers (applied kinesiologists). A muscle that is inhibited has aberrations in its muscle spindle functions and sends altered proprioceptive messages into the CNS. These alterations have been shown to cause a decrease in muscle strength.

Results: This method allows an examiner to discover muscle inhibitions in the body. There are some muscles in the body that cannot be tested manually. The multifidus and rotators muscles are examples. Asking the patient to contract these muscles and then evaluating a change in strength of an easily tested muscle may reveal inhibitions in these types of muscles.

Conclusion: This method of diagnosis for muscle inhibitions can be used to discover what corrective method is appropriate for the muscle. Vertebral subluxations can be diagnosed using this method by challenging vertebrae until the contraction of the inhibited muscle no longer weakens a normotonic muscle. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:43-46)

Key Indexing Terms: Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic; Diagnosis; Muscle Weakness; Muscle Contraction

THE NEUROREGULATORY ROLE OF THE TRIGEMINAL NERVE IN DURAL TORQUE AND THE RECIPROCAL TENSION MEMBRANE
Harlan Browning, D.C., D.C.B.C.N., C.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To review the neuroanatomy of the cranio-sacral system and its functional integration with the trigeminal nerve via the innervation of the dural membranes.

Methods: A discussion of the attachments and movement potentials of the dural membranes, and of the afferent innervation of the dura by the trigeminal nerve, leads to the hypothesis that the trigeminal nerve and nuclei both monitor and coordinate cranial motion. A review of the concepts of dural torque and meningeal tension are given.

Results: The anatomical correspondence between the trigeminal nerve, the cranial dura, and the upper three cervical nerves is suggested to be a driving force behind the craniosacral rhythm.

Conclusion: This paper hypothesizes that either directly through the meningeal dura, and the muscles of mastication, or indirectly through the neurons of the upper cervical spine, the trigeminal nerve and nuclei are responsible for the craniosacral rhythm. Adequate treatment of the craniosacral system will include examination and treatment of cranial meningeal tensions affecting the trigeminal nerve. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:55-60)

Key Indexing Terms: Cranial Neuropathies; Chiropractic; Meninges; Trigeminal Nerve

A NEWLY DISCOVERED MUSCLE-ORGAN RELATIONSHIP: THE PECTORALIS MINOR AND THE PAROTID GLAND
Stephen C. Gangemi, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: The research into the correspondence between muscle dysfunction and organ or gland dysfunction has continued throughout the history of AK. A proposed relationship between the pectoralis minor muscle and the function of the parotid glands is discussed.

Design: Private practice.

Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool.

Methods: A discussion of the visceral referred pain (VRP) areas in the body is made. Activating the VRP for the parotid glands (by pinching or rubbing) specifically strengthened the pectoralis minor muscle using manual muscle testing procedures. The relationship of the parotid glands to the immune system, the thyroid gland, and the lymphatic system is described.

Results: This method of evaluation for the function of the parotid glands allowed the doctor to diagnose a problem with these two glands, and to discover proper treatment methods (neurolymphatic stimulation, vertebral subluxation correction, or nutritional support).

Conclusion: Due to the impact of proper parotid function on an individual’s health, specifically the immune system and the thyroid gland, the observation of an inhibited (or over facilitated) pectoralis minor muscle in relationship to this gland enables the doctor to investigate and treat patients with greater success. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:75-77)

Key Indexing Terms: Parotid Gland; Pectoralis Muscles; Chiropractic; Diagnosis; Muscle Weakness

THE USE OF LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY IN TREATMENT OF RECURRENT TEMPORAL BULGE CRANIAL FAULT WITH ATTENDANT DIGESTIVE COMPLAINTS
James D. W. Hogg, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: The temporal bulge cranial fault (or external temporal cranial fault) is described. Clinical features of this syndrome are described, as well as the traditional AK method of diagnosis and treatment.

Design: Private practice.

Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool.

Methods: In patients who have a recurrence of the temporal bone cranial fault after traditional AK correction methods have been given, the use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) was employed.

Results: The author describes LLLT therapy, and its use for cranial nerve problems (cranial nerve X specifically) is explained. A step-by-step clinical protocol for the temporal bone cranial fault and cranial nerve X dysfunction is given.

Conclusion: The addition of LLLT to this doctor’s clinical protocol for the temporal bulge cranial fault and associated digestive disturbances enhanced the clinical effectiveness and longevity of correction for his patients. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:79-82)

Key Indexing Terms: Laser Therapy, Low-Level; Temporal Bone; Cranial Nerve X; Cranial Neuropathies; Chiropractic

ABNORMAL MUSCLE TESTING RESPONSES WITH CEREBELLAR TRANSNEURAL DEGENERATION – A CASE HISTORY
Datis Kharrazian, D.C., M.S., F.A.A.C.P., D.A.C.B.N., D.I.B.A.K., C.N.S., C.S.C.S., C.C.S.P.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the case of a 32-year-old female with multiple chronic disorders that was managed with procedures for the treatment of cerebellar transneural degeneration (TND).

Clinical Features: A thorough neurologic, x-ray, MRI, and CT scan examination is described as well as its neurological significance. The complex clinical features of TND are discussed, and the findings in this patient’s examination correlated.

Intervention and Outcome: Conservative chiropractic treatment of TND, as well as nutritional support, improved the majority of this patient’s symptomatology.

Conclusion: This case demonstrates how TND may lead to unpredictable muscle testing responses. This case history demonstrates how abnormal muscle responses may occur when a neurologically compromised patient performs manual muscle tests that exceed their metabolic threshold. Management of this type of patient may require nutritional treatment for the abnormal bio-chemistry of the motor neuron pools before consistent muscle testing outcomes can be expected. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:83-89)

Key Indexing Terms: Spinocerebellar Degenerations; Cerebellar Dysfunction; Neuron Degeneration; Kinesiology, Applied

CHIROPRACTIC APPLIED KINESIOLOGY INTEGRATION WITH TMJ DENTAL CARE – TWO CASES
David Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss two cases where TMJ splinting techniques were needed to stabilize the patients’ corrections.

Clinical Features: A sixteen-year-old female began orthodontic work at age thirteen, when 6 teeth were removed and braces were fitted. The patient had inhibited muscles on the left side of her body producing a staggering gait and inability to run, with severe headaches that limited her attendance in school to two days a week. These symptoms began after dental work was initiated. The second case involved a 57-year-old man who suffered a stroke that left him with poor coordination, loss of strength, speech pattern changes and an inability to coordinate the movement of his eyes so he could not focus or read.

Intervention and Outcome: Examination and treatment of the young woman’s cranium provided immediate increase in the strength of the muscles on the left side of her body and a 50% decrease in her headache. However, within two minutes the correction was lost. Placement of a tongue depressor between the teeth on the left following cranial corrections improved the muscle strength to normal, and normalized her gait pattern upon walking. She was referred to a dentist specializing in the equilibration of the TMJ, and fitted with a splint. The combined chiropractic and dental care has resolved all of her symptoms. The second older patient, a stroke victim, also received chiropractic and then dental equilibration care. His vision, reading, and speech patterns improved.

Conclusion: These two case reports demonstrate the need for coordinated chiropractic and dental care in the treatment of complex and severe cases of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:91-93)

Key Indexing Terms: Temporomandibular Joint Disorders; Chiropractic; Cranial Neuropathies; Dentistry; Orthodontics, Corrective

EFFECTS OF PROPER WALKING ON SPINAL FIXATIONS
David Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: A case series of thirty patients between the ages of 18 to 75 who had spinal fixations and decreased rib expansion were chosen for this study.

Clinical Features: All patients were measured for 1) spinal flexion, 2) passive arm abduction, 3) lateral bending of the neck and head, 4) rib expansion at the xiphoid process, 5) motion palpation of the spine, and 6) muscle testing for AK correlations with spinal fixations by testing for bilateral inhibition of the deltoid, popliteus, teres major, lower trapezius, psoas, gluteus maximus, and neck extensor muscles.

Intervention and Outcome: Treatment consisted of testing and correcting one or more of the following: 1) anterior talus, 2) dropped navicular, 3) lateral cuboid, 4) posterior calcaneus, 5) treatment to strengthen inhibited tibialis posterior, posterior longus, and gastrocnemius muscles. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was applied to the ankle and foot muscles, and proper instructions on walking were given. The patients were then asked to walk for 100 steps on a treadmill and the above tests and measurements were repeated. All but 5 patients showed all spinal fixations corrected, and rib expansion increased an average of 1.3 inches. Spinal flexion increased an average of 3.75 inches. The patients were then asked to walk 30 steps with their previous improper gait pattern, and all but two were found to have their original restrictions return.

Conclusion: Normal walking creates patterns of muscle action that normalizes spinal mechanics and rib expansion. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:95-96)

Key Indexing Terms: Foot Injuries; Ankle Injuries; Gait; Examination

EFFECTIVENESS OF APPLIED KINESIOLOGY PROCEDURES ON FOOT SIZE
David Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss changes in foot size in a convenience sample of 180 people after a combination of common applied kinesiology procedures were employed to the foot and ankle.

Clinical Features: 180 students and patients in the author’s practice and seminars had their footprints drawn. First, with their foot placed lightly on the paper and the foot outlined. Second, with their foot bearing their body weight another tracing was drawn with another colored pencil. An increase of more than _ inch indicated loss of intrinsic foot support. Only 15% of the participants had a difference of less than _ inch weight bearing compared to non-weight bearing.

Intervention and Outcome: Applied kinesiology testing and treatment procedures were applied to the muscles, joints, and skin in the ankles and feet of all patients. Skin imbalances were treated using Kinesio tape. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation was given to the ankle and foot muscles. Spinal subluxations from L4 to the sacrum were treated. The patient was then instructed to walk for 30 steps. A new piece of paper and tracing measurement of the foot was taken and compared to the original.

Conclusion: In all of the cases who had more than _ inch difference non-weight bearing compared to weight bearing, when the above AK protocols were used, the second tracing would show markedly less difference in foot size than the original tracing after AK treatment. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:99-100)

Key Indexing Terms:  Foot; Foot Joint; Ankle Joint; Chiropractic; Examination

CLINICAL RESPONSE TO A NEUROLOGICALLY BASED COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PROTOCOL DEVELOPED BY DR. WALTHER H. SCHMITT
Kerry M. McCord, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate the use of a neurologically based clinical protocol using applied kinesiology techniques developed by Walter Schmitt, a diplomate chiropractic neurologist, on a case series of four patients with dissimilar presenting complaints. The clinical protocol used for examination and treatment is given in the appendix of this paper.

Clinical Features: Three adult patients presented with severe pain syndromes, and one child with attention deficit disorder. A comprehensive examination and treatment of these cases using this protocol is described.

Intervention and Outcome: The application of this particular applied kinesiology protocol led to a successful resolution of presenting symptomatology regardless of the presenting complaint.

Conclusion: Since the presenting complaints of these patients were so varying and diverse, the possible applicability of this clinical protocol to a much wider patient base should be investigated. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:101-115)

Key Indexing Terms: Attention Deficit Disorder; Food Allergy; Examination; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic

THE BRAINSTEM AND MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING
James Otis, D.C., D.A.C.N.B.

Abstract: Objective: To offer a brief review of muscle physiology, spinal cord function, and the modulating effects of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) on muscle function, with an emphasis on factors that affect muscle test outcomes.

Data Sources: Information was obtained from English language medical and scientific journals and medical/physiology textbooks. Key authors indexed included Grillner, Binder, Heckman, Lee, Guyton, Garcia-Rill, and Powers.

Methods: A series of five manual muscle test procedures were proposed to evaluate brainstem function; the neuro-physiological relevance of each procedure is given, and expected muscle test outcomes in response to brainstem stimulation are given.

Conclusion: In the context of a full neurological exam, specific muscle test procedures are hypothesized to be sensitive, easily administered diagnostic tools for the evaluation of brainstem function. The tests described in this paper are argued to be positive (when given to a typical chiropractic clinic population), due to physiological, reversible brainstem dysfunction. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:129-143)

Key Indexing Terms: Reticular Formation; Brain Stem; Norepinephrine; Serotonin; Kinesiology, Applied

ENTEROGASTRIC REFLEX: POWERFUL DUODENAL FACTORS THAT INHIBIT THE STOMACH
Jose Palomar Lever, M.D., O.S., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the treatment of a case series of 90 patients who had stomach problems. To explain the enterogastric reflex’s relevance to digestive function, and a method for diagnosing an under-active or an over-active enterogastric reflex is described.

Clinical Features: All 90 patients were treated with the standard AK protocol, including specific AK procedures for stomach disorders. Out of the 90 patients, 82 were found to have an abnormal enterogastric reflex.

Results: Of the 4 patients with an under active enterogastric reflex, 90% improved. In patients with an over-active enterogastric reflex: 48 patients improved 90% of their symptoms; 11 patients improved 70% of their symptoms; 16 patients improved 50% of their symptoms; 3 patients improved 20% or less of their symptoms.

Conclusion: The enterogastric reflex has an effect on the digestion of food. When this reflex is disturbed, digestive problems may result. Treatment of this reflex is argued to help patients complaining of digestive problems. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:145-150)

Key Indexing Terms: Stomach; Gastric Emptying; Gastrointestinal Agents; Kinesiology, Applied

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN HOMOCYSTEINE, THE PSOAS MINOR MUSCLE, AND LOW BACK PAIN
Thomas Rogowskey, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: A connection between excess levels of homocysteine and bilateral weakness of the psoas minor muscle is proposed.

Design: Private practice.

Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool.

Methods: The metabolism of homocysteine is described. The clinical presentation of an anterior lumbar vertebra is described, and correlated with the biomechanical instability of a bilaterally inhibited psoas minor muscle.

Results: In a case series, six patients from the doctor’s practice had bilaterally inhibited psoas minor muscles. In these patients, insalivation of homocysteine weakened a previously facilitated muscle. Insalivation of nutrients that combat excess homocysteine levels (methylcobalamine/B-12, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate/MTHF, folic acid, pyridoxyl-5-phosphate/P5P, serine, betaine, and/or arginine) corrected the bilaterally inhibited psoas minor muscles. A treatment protocol of the anterior lumbar vertebrae, the neurolymphatic reflexes, and the cervical spine problems frequently involved with the inhibited psoas minor muscles is presented.

Conclusion: Excess homocysteine has been shown to be a risk factor in cardiovascular disease. This paper describes the musculoskeletal and functional biochemical problems that result from excess homocysteine in addition to the traditionally associated diseases. A treatment protocol is described. Correlating these findings with lab results is an area to be further investigated. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:151-156)

Key Indexing Terms: Homocysteine; Psoas Muscles; Low Back Pain; Heart Diseases; Cerebrovascular Accident; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic; Musculoskeletal Manipulations

THE NEUROLOGICAL RATIONALE FOR A COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PROTOCOL USING APPLIED KINESIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: This paper presents the clinical protocol developed by the author after 30 years of clinical experience using applied kinesiology techniques.

Design: The protocol is described, and then the neurologic and metabolic rationale for the placement of the procedures within the protocol is explained.

Study Subjects: Patients were examined by the treating chiropractor from his existing patient pool.

Methods: The procedure presented identifies muscle weakness, injuries, systemic nutritional problems, systemic structural problems, cellular metabolic problems, autonomic problems, systemic endocrine problems, autonomic dysfunction, emotional stress problems, local pain problems, and gait assessment.

Results: This protocol enables practitioners of various disciplines and practice styles to incorporate these functional neurological assessment procedures into their daily practice.

Conclusion: This protocol summarizes the author’s 30 years of contributions to the system of applied kinesiology chiropractic. The organization of his work in the fields of neurology, biochemistry, spinal adjusting, and the diagnosis and treatment of somatic dysfunction is presented. Outcome studies of this method of treatment should be made. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:157-191)

Key Indexing Terms: Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic; Muscle Weakness; Nervous System; Chemistry, Clinical; Evaluation; Treatment Protocols

ADULT ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER AND LEARNING DISABILITIES
Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the author’s experience of treating both children and later adults with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and learning disabilities. The author reviews a paper he wrote in 1984 on the subject, and then describes later findings that encompass his 41 years of treating the problem.

Methods: The neurology and metabolism of the patient with ADD is described. The author describes a cranial fault that he has consistently found in these patients, and its method of diagnosis and treatment are explained.

Results: The author has treated this particular cranial fault in 1,500 patients who were classified with learning disabilities. A control group of 250 patients were questioned by the author and determined not to have any type of learning problems. The cranial fault was not present in the 250 members of the control group. The methodology for determining learning disabilities or attention deficit disorder in the patients was not given.

Conclusion: The author has used this cranial treatment in 1,500 patients with ADD and learning disabilities, and has evidence from patient response that the correction helps with these disorders. He has begun a study on other students with similar problems who have taken a previous SAT exam that will give a base line score, which will help determine if the cranial fault correction has some bearing on improvements in the test scores. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:193-208)

Key Indexing Terms: Attention Deficit Disorder; Learning Disabilities; Adult Learning Disorders; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLEX DISORDER AND HIATAL HERNIA, A UNIVERSAL PROBLEM
Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To describe gastroesophageal reflex disorder (GERD) and hiatal hernia and their treatment using applied kinesiology methods. A review of the anatomical distortions producing GERD and hiatal hernia is given.

Data Sources: Information was obtained from the applied kinesiology published literature and medical/physiology textbooks. Key authors indexed included Goodheart, Walther, and Guyton.

Methods: A series of diagnostic tests were described to evaluate for muscular dysfunction of the diaphragm, as well as tests to evaluate problems with the digestive enzymes of the stomach. Structural factors involved in the production of the GERD and hiatal hernia are described, as well as the signs and symptoms to suggest this problem in the patient.

Conclusion: The author suggests that diagnosing and correcting the causes of GERD will be more beneficial and longer lasting for the patient than using medications that reduce the symptoms of digestive dysfunction. Studies evaluating outcomes using this treatment method would be valuable. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2005-2006;1:209-217)

Key Indexing Terms: Hernia, Hiatal; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

 

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