ENDOMETRIOSIS: A CASE STUDY
Glen P. Alis, D.C. and Supna Alis, D.C
Abstract: Objective: To discuss a case of symptomatic endometriosis in a female successfully treated with applied kinesiology chiropractic care.
Clinical Features: A 25-year-old female presented with severe abdominal pain and cramping with her menstrual cycle, especially in the lower right quadrant. She also experienced pain with intercourse. This pain had been present for 2 months, and was rated a 10 on a pain scale of 1 to 10 (10 being worst). Her menstrual cramps had been present since the age of 12. A medical diagnosis of endometriosis had been given, and laproscopic surgery to remove endometrial and scar tissue were performed. Six months after the surgery, the symptoms returned with the same severity.
Intervention and Outcome: AK examination revealed an open ileocecal valve, subluxations at the L3 and L5 vertebrae, and sacral misalignment. Chiropractic adjustments were made 1-2 times per week for one month. Orthostatic hypotension was found on initial examination. A diagnosis of estrogen dominance was made. Digestive supports and progesterone cream was given, and dietary modifications were made eliminating white flour and sugar, coffee and colas from her diet. An exercise program was begun to increase her strength and endurance. After one month her symptoms decreased significantly so that she did not have to miss work due to menstrual pain. She now feels minor bloating and discomfort with her menses but does not need medication for relief.
Conclusion: This paper describes a method for treatment of a patient with endometriosis. Its applicability to other patients with this condition should be explored. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:1-2)
Key Indexing Terms: Menstruation Disturbances; Endometriosis; Case Reports; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied
MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS: A CASE STUDY
Glen P. Alis, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: To describe a case of medial epicondylitis in a tennis player that was limiting his ability to play due to pain. The relevance of gait testing for elbow pain is explained.
Clinical Features: A 48-year-old male presented with right medial elbow pain of six months duration. He played tennis 4-5 times a week, and his pain was definitely worse with his forehand and serve. After an hour of play, the sharp pain in his medial elbow prevented him from playing further. He received 2 cortisone shots that did not alleviate the problem. He was taking 4 Ibuprofen per day in order to continue playing.
Intervention and Outcome: On initial examination, Cozen’s test was positive, as was a medial ligament stress test of the elbow. Manual muscle testing showed inhibition of the right bicep, right supraspinatus, right pronator quadratus, left popliteus, left tibialis posterior, and left rectus femoris, and these were treated. Subluxations of the T8 vertebrae and the left navicular bone were corrected. A nutritional supplement for ligament injury was given. Gait testing demonstrated improper muscle coordination, and after AK treatment for this problem the tenderness in the elbow was improved. The concept of ligament interlink in AK is presented, and in this case it improved the interaction between his left knee and right elbow. Dietary changes to improve his inflammatory response related to hypoadrenia were made. After 7 treatments over a 6-week period the patient felt 85% improved (patient’s self-assessment), and was able to play tennis for 2 hours with only slight discomfort.
Conclusion: The value of this method of treatment for other cases of medial epicondylitis, especially in tennis players, should be investigated. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:3-4)
Key Indexing Terms: Tennis Elbow; Tendinitis; Case Reports; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied
FUNCTIONAL TESTS AND TREATMENTS FOR MALE MENOPAUSE AND PENILE DYSFUNCTION
Eugene Charles, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To review the male menopause and its symptomatology, and to offer methods of testing for endocrine imbalances. The nutritional needs related to the treatment of male menopause, prostatic hypertrophy, and penile dysfunction are described.
Data Sources: Information was obtained from English language medical and scientific journals and medical/physiology textbooks. 36 articles related to the subject of this paper are listed in the references.
Methods: A review of scientific literature regarding the vitamins, minerals, and herbs in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, prostate health, and aging in men is given. The review given suggests that zinc, essential fatty acids, saw palmetto, adrenal hormones, licorice, ginseng, and nitric oxide are needed for prostate health and adequate sexual performance. Symptom patterns and specific tests are described that purport to identify the need for these nutrients in the symptomatic patient. A male version of the Kegel exercises was described to alleviate mechanical pressures on the prostate and bladder.
Conclusion: The functional tests offered in this paper do not diagnose a disease process but seek to identify functional problems with the pelvic and urogenital muscles, hormones, and biochemical impairments to the organs of the reproductive system in older males. Concurrent EMG, urological, and other diagnostic studies should be conducted concurrently to evaluate this method of diagnosis and treatment of male menopause, prostatic hypertrophy, and penile dysfunction. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:5-16)
Key Indexing Terms: Andropause; Impotence; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied
OBJECTIVIZATION OF MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING THROUGH ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC FORCE SPECTRUM
Tatiana N. Chernysheva, M.D., Vladimir I. Korenbaum, Ph.D., Tatiana P. Apukhtina
Abstract: Background: To study a new instrument designed to objectively measure manual muscle testing outcomes.
Design: To design a force transducer EMG that measures the amplitude of low-frequency (less than 2 Hz) effort in the tested muscle. The portable dynamic force transducer that was used in the experimental trial was described.
Method: 8 volunteers were recruited for testing. Therapy localization to specific reflexes was employed during the tests. The sequence of reflex points used was unknown to the examiner and the patient. Changes in muscle strength in the thumb and middle finger of the same hand were tested using the instrument. The same TL sequence to the same reflexes was then employed while testing the middle deltoid muscle using the instrument. In this test, the upper flange of the transducer was held by the examiner’s hand and the lower flange was put on the bend of the patient’s arm during the middle deltoid test.
Results: When the examiner tested the eight patients’ middle deltoid muscle after reflex stimulation, there was a 73.7% (K2 = 0.47) agreement between the instrumental reading of an inhibited muscle after therapy localization and the examiner’s reading. When the instrument was used alone to measure the muscle response of the thumb and middle finger, there was poor agreement 65.5% (K1 = 0.31).
Conclusion: In the first measuring sequence there were several muscles involved in the test (thumb and middle finger), whereas in the second the middle deltoid was the only muscle tested. This study has research design and methodological problems that make understanding or reproducing its protocols problematic. The translation from Russian was poor. A future study should refine the framing of the research question, improve the method of testing, describe the results more clearly, and enlarge the number of participants. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:17-22)
Key Indexing Terms: Muscle Weakness; Evaluation Studies; Research Design; Instrumentation; Kinesiology, Applied
CASE STUDY: ECZEMATOUS DERMATITIS AND THE DEEP TENDON REFLEX EXAMINATON
Robert Ciprian, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: A patient who sought chiropractic care for right ankle, knee, and low back pain was also successfully treated for eczematous dermatitis.
Clinical Features: A 28-year-old male presented with basketball injuries to his right ankle, knee, and low back. For the past 1.5 years there was also an eczematous dermatitis present that was being treated with a topical prescription cream without success. The area of dermatitis and the medication prescribed were not given.
Intervention and Outcome: Standard applied kinesiology care for a pelvic category III, category II, right lateral tibia, right lateral talus, right inferior navicular, right superior 1st cuneiform and right lateral cuboid were corrected. The deep tendon reflex examination of Dr. Richard Belli was employed for residual low back pain, and treatment to L3 (posterior left subluxation listing) improved the patient’s low back, knee, and ankle pain. After the patients third visit, the pain in the ankle, knee and low back were improved, and the dermatitis had disappeared.
Conclusion: This case demonstrated that structural corrections to spinal and extremity joints improved a patient with eczematous dermatitis. Further research on the mechanism of this type of therapy and larger patient cohorts would be valuable to evaluate if this system of treatment would be of benefit to larger groups of patients with eczematous dermatitis. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:23-24)
Key Indexing Terms: Eczema; Treatment; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied
CASE STUDY: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Robert Ciprian, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: To discuss the treatment of a female patient with multiple sclerosis who had been wheel chair bound for 2 years.
Clinical Features: A 28-year-old female presented with low back pain. She was wheel chair bound. She showed considerable atrophy of the lower extremities, and had a decreased L4 reflex. Her toenails were discolored, brittle and flaking, and she had a fungal infection. On consultation it was discovered that the fungal infection began just before she started having the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
Intervention and Outcome: Treatment of a category III pelvic fault and treatment of the ileocecal valve reflexes were employed with spinal adjustments to positive areas of challenge. Nutrients given (using standard AK protocol) were: calcium lactate, Spanish black radish, Zymex II, SF 722 (10-undecylenic acid from castor oil). Nutritional instruction to remove sugar, wheat, corn, dairy, soy and fermented foods was given, and instructions to eat whole foods were advised. After 5 months of chiropractic care she was able to get out of her wheel chair and perform the activities of daily living and able to go to the bathroom by herself and to stand up in the kitchen sink to wash the dishes. Her L4 reflex was normal, she had a healthier appearance to her toenails, her digestion was improved, her lower extremity strength was improved (”60%,” method of determining this not given), and 90% decrease in low back pain. Physical therapy was advised at this time to help improve the atrophy in her lower extremities.
Conclusion: A number of other case reports on the treatment of functional disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis using AK chiropractic methods are in the literature, and this research should be expanded. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:25-26)
Key Indexing Terms: Multiple Sclerosis; Treatment; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied
APPLIED KINESIOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF NOCTURNAL ENURESIS: A CASE STUDY
Cecilia A. Duffy, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a 4-year old male who was successfully treated for nocturnal enuresis that had been present every night of his life.
Clinical Features: This boy had never had a dry night and would also lose bladder control while napping during the day. He was otherwise toilet trained during waking hours.
Intervention and Outcome: The patient was treated using applied kinesiology protocol eight times over a 5-month period. Manual muscle testing revealed a conditionally inhibited upper trapezius that became conditionally facilitated upon oral insalivation of Cataplex B (Standard Process Labs). The L5 and T4 vertebrae were anterior; a category II pelvic fault and sphenobasilar inspiration assist cranial fault were corrected. The volume of liquids the child consumed was to be recorded. 2-weeks later the child had 5 dry nights, and the daytime bedwetting was resolved. The patient had never experienced a dry night to this point. ADH levels were evaluated for diabetes insipidus, and were negative. Instructions to limit water consumption to 4 ounces per hour with no water consumption after 6 p.m. were given. An adrenal supplement was given also. Bilateral foot pronation was corrected. If the boy did not drink water after 6 p.m., the nighttime enuresis problem remained corrected.
Conclusion: It appears that patients with nocturnal enuresis do undergo chiropractic treatment in practice. Consequently, this should be an area of research importance. More clinical trials using reliable diagnostic criteria and outcome measurements are needed.
(Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:27-29)
Key Indexing Terms: Enuresis; Manipulations, Spinal; Case Reports; Kinesiology, Applied
THE INTRAOSSEOUS SUBLUXATION, ASSOCIATED POINTS OF ACUPUNCTURE, AND REDOX PROBLEMS
Daniel H. Duffy, Sr., D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this paper was to review the intraosseous subluxation described in applied kinesiology methods and to suggest that this subluxation is present at the associated points of meridians indicated by alarm point diagnosis.
Methods: A review of the intraosseous subluxation, its examination and treatment, and its hypothesized relationship to the cranial rhythmic impulse, the Governing Vessel and Bladder meridians, and many other factors are discussed. A review of the author’s own experience with measurable improvements in patients’ performance after correction of this subluxation is given.
Results: The beneficial, often immediately observable results from the correction of the intraosseous subluxation was hypothesized to be related to the improvement in the function of meridians whose alarm points are affected by the intraosseous subluxation.
Conclusion: Search for an intraosseous subluxation at the associated point of the involved meridian was recommended whenever acupuncture meridian imbalance is diagnosed using AK methods. Intraosseous subluxations should be considered a potential cause of meridian imbalances in patients. Clinical trials to evaluate this hypothesis are needed. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:31-36)
Key Indexing Terms: Acupuncture Points; Meridians; Clinical Protocols; Manipulation, Spinal; Kinesiology, Applied
ACID-BASE METABOLISM: A STUDY TO EVALUATE DIFFERENT MEASUREMENT METHODS (INCLUDING SUMMARY OF 5 CASE HISTORIES)
Hans Garten, MED, D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: In this study a comparison is made of methods of acid-base measurements using the blood gas analysis method of Astrup, urine acid titration according to Sander, lactate measurement in venous blood, and the sensory provocation methods from applied kinesiology. Therapy for acid-base disturbances is described.
Methods: The importance of the acid-base physiology in the blood is discussed, and a review of the literature on the various methods of measuring acid-base balance is given. The signs and symptoms of acidosis and alkalosis are described. Methods for diagnosing hyperacidic and hyperalkaline conditions in patients using applied kinesiology sensory provocation and manual muscle testing responses are delineated. 246 patients were part of this study, 190 of whom were patients at the pain therapy section of the department for anesthesiology and operative intensive care medicine of the Justus-Liebig-University in Giessen. 5 detailed case studies and applied kinesiology evaluation and treatment are described, and their outcomes are matched to the acid titration urinary tests of Sander.
Results: Applied kinesiology sensory provocation testing was found to be the most consistently effective method for evaluating the specific acid-base imbalances of patients and the method that best enabled the physician to design a therapeutic program to improve their acid-base balance.
Conclusion: Using specific chiropractic and nutritional therapy it was possible in these patients to reduce several types of metabolic stress that led to decreased acid elimination. This was one sign of correction of acid-base imbalances. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:41-68)
Key Indexing Terms: Acid-Base Imbalance; Acidosis; Alkalosis; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Clinical Protocols; Urinalysis; Hematologic Tests; Kinesiology, Applied
CASE STUDY: CHRONIC SEVERE CONSTIPATION CAUSED BY ASYMPTOMATIC L3-4 INTERVERTEBRAL DISC SYNDROME AND CLOSED ILEOCECAL VALVE
William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the applied kinesiology management of a patient who had never moved his bowels and who had depended upon a weekly enema for his entire life.
Clinical Features: A 13-year-old boy presented who had never moved his bowels on his own since birth. Medical x-rays were taken for diagnosis and treatment with mineral oils had not been effective.
Intervention and Outcome: Physical examination revealed a bilateral sprain/strain of the sacroiliac joints, with a compression of the L3-4 intervertebral disc. The L3 vertebra was anterior, and there was a positive challenge suggesting a closed ileocecal valve. Palpation of the gallbladder showed tenderness, and the patient was counseled to eat beet greens. A correlation between bilaterally weak pectoralis clavicular muscles and hypochlorhydria was made. Intersegmental traction to the L3-4 disc along with corrective stretching exercises were given. He was told to increase his water-soluble fiber with papaya and apples, and told to avoid milk, corn, soy and wheat that were found to cause muscle inhibition with oral nutrient challenge. Correction to the lumbosacral spine and the closed ileocecal valve, along with nutritional treatment, corrected this young boy’s bowel pattern and by the fourth visit he was moving his bowels daily.
Conclusion: Normalization of the lumbosacral plexus outflow to the gastrointestinal tract and specifically the ileocecal valve is hypothesized to be the effective factor in the treatment of a severe, life-long constipation. Many patients experience chronic constipation that visit chiropractic offices, and so further evaluation of this method of treatment is warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:69-70)
Key Indexing Terms: Constipation; Ileocecal Valve; Lumbosacral Plexus; Case Reports; Manipulations, Spinal; Kinesiology, Applied
CASE STUDY: CORRECTION OF SEVERE HIATAL HERNIA COMPLAINTS IN A PATIENT WITH A CONGENITAL FAILURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE GROWTH WITH RESULTANT SEVERE SCOLIOSIS
William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the chiropractic care of a patient medically diagnosed with Werdnig-Hoffman disease (a spinal muscular atrophy), who had been unable to hold down food for five months previous to chiropractic treatment, and to discuss issues clinically relevant to this disorder.
Clinical Features: A 13-year-old male with a medical diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffman disease (type I, infantile) presented for chiropractic care related to a severe hiatal hernia. The patient was wearing a body cast made out of semi-dense foam, and presented in an electric wheelchair that he could operate with digital controls. At the age of 18-months the child received applied kinesiology cranial treatment that helped with his extreme weakness at the time. This allowed him to hold his head up and start to have normal bowel movements. The child had been previously given a prognosis of death before age 2. For 5 months prior to the treatments in this report, he would regurgitate his food with copious amounts of liquid upon eating just a few bites. Occasionally he could eat one meal within a two-day period.
Intervention and Outcome: Due to the lack of muscle development in this child, surrogate testing as developed in applied kinesiology methods allowed for the AK evaluation of skeletal misalignment in this boy. Bilateral sacroiliac subluxations with a right inferior sacral base, right L3, left L4, right L5, C1 right, C2 left, C3 right were corrected. T9-L1 were found anterior with the ribs bilaterally lateral. A positive challenge to the diaphragm muscle was discovered. Origin-insertion technique and muscle spindle cell technique along with related neurolymphatic reflexes were performed to strengthen the diaphragm, abdominal, and major pelvic muscles. The patient responded well to the interventions and was able to swallow an entire meal without side effects. He was treated through age 18, and graduated from college with a major in psychology and a minor in special education.
Conclusion: In the remarkable outcome presented in this case report, there is evidence of precise biomechanical and neurological individuality. As a result, this patient only responds to a singular form of adjusting and may have failed to respond to others. Apparently, this young man with type I, infantile Werdnig-Hoffman disease was in this category. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:71-73)
Key Indexing Terms: Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood; Hernia, Hiatal; Muscle Weakness; Manipulation, Spinal; Kinesiology, Applied
CASE STUDY: CRYPTORCHIDISM CORRECTION WITH CONSERVATIVE CHIROPRACTIC APPLIED KINESIOLOGY
William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the case of an infant with a congenital right inguinal hernia and undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) who received chiropractic treatment prior to surgery.
Clinical Features: The parents of a nine-month old child sought a second opinion for their child diagnosed one week earlier with a right inguinal hernia and undescended testicle. The child was born vaginally without difficulty, although he was six weeks premature.
Intervention and Outcome: Due to the age of this child, surrogate testing as developed in applied kinesiology methods allowed for evaluation of skeletal misalignment in this infant. A bilateral sacroiliac sprain was corrected using gentle respiratory adjustments to correct the misaligned pelvic joints. The author describes a right inferior sacral base, right L3, left L4, right L5, C1 right, C2 left, C3 right vertebral subluxation complex to arise with the sacroiliac sprain, and these were corrected also. The thoracolumbar junction was also rotated at T10-12, and corrected. These corrections were performed one week apart with complete resolution of the cryptorchidism after the second visit.
Conclusion: There are indications that patients suffering from cryptorchidism (undescended testicle) may benefit from a holistic chiropractic approach that not only includes examination and care to the primary areas of complaint (e.g. inguinal hernia and undescended testicle) but also potentially from significant pelvic subluxation concomitants. Since surgery is the only current approach, and the applied kinesiology method is conservative and cost-effective, further validation studies should be undertaken due to the global increase in this condition. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:75-76)
Key Indexing Terms: Cryptorchidism; Hernia, Inguinal; Manipulations, Spinal; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied
THE PINEAL CRANIAL FAULT
Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: This study investigates a hypothesized relationship between a particular cranial fault, the pineal gland, and melatonin metabolism.
Design: Prospective case series. 78 patients recruited from the practice of the treating clinician.
Intervention and Outcome: The patients’ tensor fascia lata muscles were tested supine, with simultaneous crossed thumb therapy localization (TL) to the cruciate suture of the maxillary bones. In these patients, an inhibition of the muscle was found with therapy localization and a particular phase of respiration (inspiration or expiration) would negate the inhibition. A particular cranial vector of correction would be sought in these patients, the contact point being from the center of the palate with the index finger and an open hand contact on both mastoid processes simultaneously. The direction of correction for both hands would be the direction that caused the greatest muscle inhibition on challenge. A figure 8 motion of the palate hand, and a clockwise or counter clockwise motion of the hand on the occiput for 40 seconds were needed to achieve correction. It was also found that pineal gland and melatonin nutritional extracts would also negate the positive TL to the cruciate suture.
Conclusion: The results of this prospective case series indicate that this particular cranial fault may be associated with the pineal gland and melatonin metabolism. Specific biochemical measurements and more precisely documented outcomes from the treatment given should be measured and described in future studies. Further research into this method of evaluation and treatment, and into the proposed physiology of the mechanisms involved is warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:75-76)
Key Indexing Terms: Pineal Gland; Melatonin; Case Reports; Musculoskeletal Manipulations; Kinesiology, Applied
CRITERIA FOR ACCURATE MANUAL MUSCLE TESTING AS USED IN APPLIED KINESIOLOGY PRACTICE
Hans Boehnke, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Introduction: For years, applied kinesiology chiropractors have used the term muscle tests as one of their most important methods for examining patients. There are a number of descriptions of the basic manual muscle test in AK, and this paper presents them and attempts to delineate their differences.
Purpose: To seek a nomenclature for three differing types of muscle tests presently in use by applied kinesiologists, and to seek consensus in the terminology used to describe manual muscle testing outcomes. This paper seeks to investigate the rationale behind three differing forms of muscle testing and to present possible theories for their existence and their clinical value. The three types of muscle testing described are: Examiner Started Manual Muscle Testing (EsMMT), Patient Started Manual Muscle Testing (PsMMT), and Patient Started sub-maximum Manual Muscle Testing (PsMMTsm). The criteria used to determine manual muscle testing outcomes are described.
Discussion: While there have been no definitive studies comparing the use of these different types of manual muscle testing as a diagnostic and treatment modality, there have been some reported case studies which support its value.
Conclusion: Future research is necessary to further understand these differing types of manual muscle testing methods that are already partially accepted in the applied kinesiology chiropractic community. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:89-97)
Key Indexing Terms: Terminology; Muscle Weakness; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS USING APPLIED KINESIOLOGY METHODS IN A CASE OF LONG-TERM HEAD PAIN
Scott C. Cuthbert, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: A patient presenting with constant, daily headaches for the previous 7 years that had been increasing in severity is successfully treated with applied kinesiology chiropractic care. The patient had numerous causative components to her symptomatology, and the methods used to diagnose these varying factors are described.
Clinical Features: A 56-year-old nurse presented with constant, worsening headaches after several severe automobile accidents. In the first one 7 years previous, she was rear-ended and her car was thrown 70 feet forward. She heard a loud popping in her spine that made her think she had broken her neck. For 7 _ months after the first accident she was unable to work or to lift her head from the pillow.
Intervention and Outcome: Hautant’s and Freeman-Wycke’s proprioceptive tests revealed postural embarrassment. Dramatic muscle weakness on testing was found (Grade 3 as graded in the Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 4th Edition by the American Medical Association). Cranial corrections strengthened the sternocleidomastoid and deep neck flexor muscles, removed positive challenges to the TMJ, removed the positive ocular lock, finger-to-finger, finger-to-nose, Hautant’s and Freeman-Wycke’s tests, and allowed for manipulation of the patient’s occiput and cervical spine. An upper cervical fixation, T1-T2 subluxation, treatment to the foot, and a category II pelvic fault were corrected. At the end of the patient’s first treatment her headache was gone. This was the first time she had felt no head pain in over 7 years. Over the next 2 weeks the headaches stayed at the 1-2 level on the VAS, and after 8 visits all of her symptomatology was gone.
Conclusion: This case demonstrated that mechanical faults, especially when present for long periods, could disturb proprioceptive signaling from the eyes, the cervical spine, and the vestibular mechanism. Evaluation and treatment of these mechanisms were possible using AK methods, and were successful in resolving intense symptoms relatively quickly. Consequently, further investigation of this type of chiropractic treatment for patients with severe, long-term head pain is warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:113-117)
Key Indexing Terms: Headache Disorders; Pain, Intractable; Whiplash Injuries; Cranial Neuropathies; Proprioception; Case Reports; Musculoskeletal Manipulations; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE ANTERIOR-INFERIOR SACRUM: SUTHERLAND’S DEPRESSED SACRUM REVISITED
Scott Cuthbert, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: To review the anatomy, etiology, and symptoms associated with an anterior-inferior sacral subluxation and to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this condition using applied kinesiology methods. A historical parallel to the importance of this sacral fault in the writings of William Garner Sutherland, D.O. is presented.
Data Source: The following were searched for information relevant to the anterior inferior sacral subluxation: the AK literature, the writings of Major Bertrand DeJarnette, D.O., D.C., William Garner Sutherland, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
Results: The anterior-inferior sacral subluxation is frequently found in new mothers. Post-partum neurosis and depression are frequently improved by correction of this sacral fault in the literature reviewed. Production of this fault may occur traumatically with falls onto the buttocks, or during delivery of a child when the pelvic diameter is increased and the ligaments of the pelvis are relaxed. Mother’s in the lithotomy position during delivery may strain the sacral base anteriorly and inferiorly, especially when the obstetrician applies traction to the baby’s head.
Conclusion: A definitive diagnosis can best be made using the clinical tests described in this paper, and conservative treatment can be effective in treating this musculoskeletal problem of the pelvis. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:119-124)
Key Indexing Terms: Sacrum; Sacroiliac Joint; Pelvic Pain; Pelvic Floor; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE PIRIFORMIS MUSCLE AND THE GENITO-URINARY SYSTEM: THE ANATOMY OF THE MUSCLE-ORGAN-GLAND CORRELATION
Scott Cuthbert, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: To review the anatomy, etiology, and symptoms associated with the genito-urinary system and to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of problems associated with it using applied kinesiology methods. The consistency in AK of specific muscle dysfunction with specific organ or gland dysfunction is described.
Data Source: The following were searched for information relevant to the genito-urinary system and its chiropractic evaluation and treatment: MEDLINE, the AK literature, chiropractic, osteopathic and medical textbooks, and the Index to Chiropractic Literature.
Results: Because of the communication systems in the body between the nervous, circulatory, and muscular tissues, a disturbed portion of the musculoskeletal system may impair the function of other tissues and organs. In the paper the focus was on the genito-urinary system and its communication with the nerves and blood vessels of the piriformis muscle area. In AK, each of the endocrine organs has been given specific diagnostic tests, therapeutic protocols, nutritional correlations, and treatment monitoring methods. The endocrine organs are controlled by the nervous system, and this is hypothesized to be the reason chiropractic has been helpful with several endocrine-related disorders.
Conclusion: The hypothesis of this paper is that using manual muscle testing, the physician may evaluate and work directly with the position, motion, innervation, nutritional needs, and tissues of the genito-urinary organs and their adjacent and supportive tissues. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:125-140)
Key Indexing Terms: Urogenital System; Urogenital Abnormalities; Diagnosis, Differential; Musculoskeletal Manipulations; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE OTHER 49% OF THE 51%er
Stephen C. Gangemi, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: In applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, a 51%er occurs when the patient therapy localizes to one of the 5-factors of the I.V.F. and a muscle weakens. The 5-factors of the I.V.F. that may need treatment include the nerve, the blood vascular, lymphatic, cerebrospinal fluid, and acupuncture meridian systems. Another reason for the 51%er phenomenon is described.
Methods: The hypothesis of this paper is that a muscle that tests strong, but weakens with TL to one of the I.V.F. factors, weakens due to an injury that needs to be treated using Injury Recall Technique, a method developed by Dr. Walter H. Schmitt to remove the memory of trauma from tissues. The 51%er may also be due to a need to treat an immune system problem first.
Results: The method of testing for an I.R.T. related 51%er muscle is to perform autogenic facilitation (stretching the muscle spindle cell). If the muscle does not strengthen, then an injury is suspected and I.R.T. evaluation performed. The immune system involvement is suspected if autogenic facilitation strengthens the muscle as it should, yet immune system muscles are found weak or are made weak using the visceral referred pain (VRP) challenges described by Dr. Schmitt.
Conclusion: A 51%er indicates that the muscle should not be treated until the reason for the 51%er phenomenon in the muscle is resolved. The reasons for the 51%er findings are hypothesized to be injuries and/or immune issues and that should be treated first. Treating the injuries and/or immune system involvements first will either resolve the 51%er muscle phenomenon, or resolve the muscle inhibition altogether. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:163-165)
Key Indexing Terms: Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis, Differential; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE THYMUS VISCERAL REFERRED PAIN AREA
Stephen C. Gangemi, D.C.
Abstract: Objective: Somatovisceral and viscerosomatic reflexes are well accepted in the research literature. Visceral referred pain (VRP) areas on the body wall exist for most of the organs of the body. The location of the thymus gland’s VRP is proposed.
Methods: The neurolymphatic reflex (NL) for the thymus gland, as reported by Dr. Walter H. Schmitt, is over the right 4th-6th ribs between the axillary and midmamillary lines. The VRP area for the thymus is reported to be over the right first rib area both anterior and posterior.
Results: If there is positive TL to the NL for the thymus, then determining whether the organ needs more sympathetic or parasympathetic stimulation is determined. Muscle weakness as a result of rubbing the VRP for the organ indicates a need for a net parasympathetic response, and muscle weakness as a result of pinching the VRP for the organ indicates a need for a net sympathetic response.
Conclusion: The thymus gland, along with the spleen and the gut associated lymph tissue (GALT), account for the majority of the immune system. A hypothesized VRP for the thymus gland is described, and a method for evaluating the thymus gland’s functional state is offered. Outcome studies for this method of evaluation and treatment are necessary. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:167-168)
Key Indexing Terms: Thymus Gland; Reflex, Abnormal; Diagnosis, Differential; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
INJURY RECALL TECHNIQUE REVISITED
James D.W. Hogg, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To present three cases where the Injury Recall Technique (I.R.T.) of Dr. Walter H. Schmitt was employed successfully.
Methods: The I.R.T. addresses withdrawal reflex muscular imbalances that may persist in patients long after the original injury. The protocol for diagnosis and treatment using I.R.T. are described.
Results: A patient with a thick, ropy, and tender to palpation scar from a cesarean section surgery 16-years previous was treated with I.R.T. 6 months later the scar was barely palpable and no longer tender to pressure, and after treatment there was long lasting improvement in her abdominal muscle strength. A second patient had extensive scoliosis surgery, with a scar from T3 to L5 that produced numbness along the length of the scar. I.R.T. treatment was given to her and the numbness was relieved. A third patient had three corneal transplants. After the last surgery, he had a “wrinkle” across his field of vision. I.R.T. treatment was given to both eyes. Three weeks later the patient reported that his vision had gone blurry a few days before for 30 minutes and then cleared. He reported that the “wrinkle” across his visual field was gone and his eyesight was better than it had been since the last surgery.
Conclusion: The author’s report suggests that I.R.T. is useful when applied to poorly healed areas of scar tissue. Patients visiting chiropractors frequently have surgical scar tissue, and so this method of treatment warrants further investigation and outcome studies. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:169-172)
Key Indexing Terms: Cicatrix; Pain; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
ADRENAL AND INSULIN RELATED DISORDERS: MORE COMPLEX THAN WE THOUGHT
Datis Kharrazian, D.C., M.S., D.A.C.B.N., C.N.S., C.C.N., C.S.C.S., C.C.S.P.
Abstract: Objective: To present information regarding the complex web of physiological alterations that take place with adrenal and insulin related disorders. The interactions between insulin and cortisol and their impact on human physiology when abnormal are described. The clinical methods of evaluating these hormonal phenomena, and a review of the scientific literature in regard to natural compounds that help support these patterns of imbalance are described.
Methods: 238 references from the medical, physiological, pathological, endocrine, nutritional, biochemical, pharmacological, and neurological scientific literature are cited and reviewed.
Results: Due to the complexity of insulin and cortisol related disorders a number of vicious cycles and imbalances are created that have a major impact on human physiology. A review of the natural compounds that improve insulin resistance and adrenal function are given, and specific tests developed in AK and using other biochemical assays for evaluating the functional state of the adrenal glands and the pancreas are reviewed.
Conclusion: Insulin resistance and blood sugar handling disorders affect 25-35% of western populations, and contribute to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, hormone metabolism disorders, obesity, and certain types of cancer. This problem is multi-factorial, and so it is naïve to think of adrenal and insulin related problems as having a single origin and a single cure. Outcome studies of this method of treatment using concurrent bio-chemical testing on the patients treated would be invaluable. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:173-201)
Key Indexing Terms: Adrenal Insufficiency; Metabolic Syndrome X; Insulin; Cortisol; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Clinical Protocols; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
AN INTERESTING INTERLUDE – A CASE STUDY
George N. Koffeman, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To describe the case of a 67-year-old man who had been in a coma for 22 days following severe head trauma. The case is described chronologically and his response to chiropractic treatment is reported.
Methods: The doctor visited the patient in the hospital; he had pneumonia and a tracheal tube inserted as well as a stomach tube for feeding. A diagnosis of massive brain damage had been given. Due to the patient’s inability to respond, his wife was tested as a surrogate for manual muscle testing response. TL found positive contacts at the neurovascular (NV) reflex on the left frontal bone, a stress receptor for the supraspinatus on the left, and a cranial adjustment (described as “hemispheric” and determined by the height of the eye sockets) was given.
Results: Within 2 minutes of receiving this treatment, the respiratory rate fell to 19 from 33 per minute, heart rate dropped to 89 from 128, and the rhythm became regular, where it had been spiking every 6 to 10 beats. The next day the patient recognized the doctor and the patient signaled to him by squeezing his left hand. The previous day’s surrogate testing routine was now negative. A left-sided temporal tap correction with the suggestion of complete and rapid recovery was given to the patient. The next day the patient had made so much progress that he was moved to a rehabilitation hospital. The patient was still completely paralyzed on the right side – arm and leg. A NV reflex near the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones on the side opposite of the paralysis was treated for over 20 minutes. At 21 minutes the patient reached up and removed the doctor’s hand with his left hand. 15 minutes later, he bent his right elbow and laced his fingers together with his left hand and crossed his right leg over his left at the ankle. 15 days later the tracheal tube had been removed, and he was eating on his own. After 2 months the patient was going to physical therapy 2-3 times per week. He is given chiropractic treatment once per week. His right arm still has spastic flexion paralysis and did not respond fully.
Conclusion: Surrogate testing is used with patients who are unable to perform manual muscle testing. In this case, treatment determined using surrogate testing appeared to assist this patient recover from partial paralysis and coma. Further treatments of patients in this condition, often considered hopeless, may be warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:203-205)
Key Indexing Terms: Coma; Case Reports; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
NEUROTOXICITY AND ELEVATED HOMOCYSTEINE: THE ROLES PLAYED BY HOMOCYSTEIC ACID, ASPARTATE AND GLUTAMATE AND ACTIVATED FORMS OF FOLIC ACID, VITAMIN B-12, AND VITAMIN B-6
Walter H. Schmitt, D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.
Abstract: Background: High concentrations of homocysteine and homocysteic acid (a neurotoxin) and low concentrations of nutrients necessary for its conversion are frequently observed in subjects with neurological symptoms.
Objective: To describe applied kinesiology methods for diagnosing imbalances in homocysteine levels, and to offer methods for treatment.
Methods: In patients with neurological problems related to elevated homocysteine levels, patients were found to have muscle inhibitions following oral insalivation of homocysteine. The metabolism of homocysteine is described, as well as the nutrients necessary for the conversion of homocysteine into amino acids. The procedure for diagnosis and treatment of these factors is described.
Results: The three-pronged approach of nutritional supplementation, neurotoxic substance elimination, and the use of Visceral Challenge Technique help return difficult patients to normal function. The VCT was described in a previous paper for the ICAK, 1999-2000;1:141-148.
Conclusion: The author warns that patients with neurological symptoms related to elevated homocysteine/homocysteic acid are sensitive to aspartame and glutamate. Avoidance of these substances, for these patients, is necessary for full recovery. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:211-215)
Key Indexing Terms: Homocysteine; Neurotoxicity Syndromes; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Clinical Protocols; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE SOMATIC WINDOW ON NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION – PART 2. INDUCING PATTERNS OF OVER FACILITATION TO EVALUATE CORTICAL HEMISPHERIC DOMINANCE PATTERNS
Walther H. Schmitt, D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.
Abstract: Objective: To outline procedures for assessment and treatment of cerebral cortical hemispheric imbalances. The author, a diplomate chiropractic neurologist, describes the neurological, somatic, and muscle testing consequences of cortical hemispheric imbalances.
Methods: The assessment of cortical functional status may be assessed by Weber’s test, comparing passive range of motion right to left, right to left pupillary light response, and many other autonomic assessments. Right cortex challenges are inducing right brain activity (humming/music); right nostril olfaction; meaningful left distal extremity movement; left visual field stimulation (eyelights). Left cortex challenges are inducing left brain activity (counting/math); left nostril olfaction; meaningful right distal extremity movement; right visual field stimulation (eyelights). After the cortex challenge, manual muscle tests are performed to assess the functional neurological state of the cortex.
Results: The side of hemispheric dominance will demonstrate increased muscle tone on the same side (demonstrated by failure of autogenic inhibition to the muscle, as described by Richard Belli, D.C.). Right sided cortex dominance will produce an open ileocecal valve finding (also increased parasympathetic function on the right); and left sided cortex dominance will produce an open Houston Valve finding (also increased parasympathetic function on the left).
Conclusion: The integration of applied kinesiology principles with the principles of chiropractic neurology may help the physician to get a more complete view of a patient’s cortical neurological status. In so doing, these therapies are suggested to help the patient achieve their optimal improvement in neuron metabolic function, and to overcome the problems created by cortical hemispheric dominance. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:217-226)
Key Indexing Terms: Dominance, Cerebral; Autonomic Nervous System; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Clinical Protocols; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
THE SOMATIC WINDOW ON NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION – PART 3. ENCEPHALIC TRANSNEURAL DEGENERATION: THE CAUSE OF MANY TMJ PROBLEMS AND BILATERAL JOINT PROBLEMS
Walter H. Schmitt, D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.
Abstract: Objective: To review the concepts of transneural degeneration (TND). Assessment and treatment procedures for this problem are outlined. The paper primarily focuses on the clinical effects of TND that arise from the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and the parabrachial nucleus of the brainstem. The neuroanatomy of the mesencephalon is reviewed.
Methods: TND is an established metabolic phenomenon that affects many motor functions that are commonly identified by AK MMT procedures. TND is associated with the metabolic effects on neurons when they no longer receive adequate stimulation of their cell membrane receptors to keep the neurons metabolically healthy, such as occurs in cases of deafferentation.
Results: Restoration of TND neurons to normal metabolism depends on supplying the neurons with: 1) oxygen, 2) fuel (glucose and substances necessary for its oxidative phosphorylation), and 3) stimulation. Since the TMJ significantly relates with the mesencephalon, AK challenges to the TMJ are suggested to evaluate mesencephalon status. If TL to the TMJ is positive, and the TL is negated by a) slow stretch of the contralateral distal flexors, b) ipsilateral cortical activity, c) contralateral hemifield stimulation, d) oxygen, or e) mesencephalon homeopathic supplement, then mesencephalon treatment for TND is initiated. Treatment involves a) slowly stretching the patients contralateral distal flexors (toes and ankle, fingers and wrist), b) patient performs ipsilateral cortex activity (humming, math), c) perform contralateral hemifield stimulation (Eyelights), d) patient is instructed to move the TMJ through all ROMs. Following mesencephalic rehabilitation procedure, recheck challenge procedure.
Conclusion: A disturbed mesencephalon due to TND explains many TMJ symptoms that are often bilateral in nature, with mental/emotional sequelae autonomic in nature, and related to difficult stomatognathic symptoms. Outcome studies of this treatment method are warranted considering the neurological importance of the areas discussed in this paper. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:227-233)
Key Indexing Terms: Spinocerebellar Degenerations; Neuron Degeneration; Mesencephalon; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
REOCCURRING PITCH PATTERN AND THE FRONTAL FAULT
Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To present the hypothesis that the PRY-T distortion pattern will recur in some cases until a subtle frontal bone cranial fault correction is made that the author reports will eliminate the recurrence.
Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of 25 cases that had recurring PRY-T distortions. The PRY-T is an AK examination technique of the major body modules and their ability neurologically to function individually and together. It is an acronym derived from an airplane’s attitudes: pitch, roll, yaw, and tilt. In these cases, the author searched for faults that still remained in these patients and found that a subtle cranial fault of the frontal bone was present, using the Eye Into Distortion method of testing. When the pitch pattern was discovered, the doctor had the patient TL the involved side of the frontal bone. This negated the positive pitch test, and suggested to the author the connection between PRY-T and frontal cranial faults.
Results: The author has found that recurring modular distortions in patients, diagnosed using the PRY-T method in AK, frequently correlated with frontal cranial faults and that once the cranial fault was corrected, recurrence of the PRY-T was eliminated.
Conclusion: The presence of a subtle frontal bone cranial fault in patients with recurring PRY-T modular distortions was reported. Correction of the frontal bone cranial fault improved the treatment outcomes for these patients. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:235-236)
Key Indexing Terms: Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Clinical Protocols; Diagnosis; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic
SUPRASPINATUS MUSCLE AS AN INDICATOR OF BRAIN SEROTONIN LEVELS
Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.
Abstract: Objective: To present the hypothesis that the supraspinatus muscle may be inhibited bilaterally in patients with low serotonin levels and depression, general anxiety syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and phobias. Patients taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) like Prozac may have this physical finding also. A discussion of the biochemistry of serotonin and its function in the brain is presented.
Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of 226 patients, 132 females and 94 males. The patients were asked to bring the medication that they had been prescribed for their psychological problems that included Zoloft, Wellbutrin, Paxil, Prozac, Effexor, Remeron, Elavil, Norpramin, Depakote, and Tofranil. The author also tested St. John’s Wart and SAMe.
Results: The author found the supraspinatus muscle to be inhibited bilaterally in each of the patients. The muscle was found to strengthen when the proper medication or alternative therapy was put in the patient’s mouth. The method of assuring whether the supplement, therapy, or medication was the “proper therapy,” and whether the psychological condition was ameliorated, were not described.
Conclusion: In this study using the supraspinatus muscle on a select population, a correlation was established between bilateral weakness of this muscle and patients with a clinical profile of depression and low serotonin levels. There was no definite correlation in this study between changes in these patients’ supraspinatus muscle function and professional psychological testing to demonstrate their improved psychological state. This test may offer mental health practitioners another objective tool to measure their progress with treating patients with mental disorders. Further study of this clinical information is needed to identify the clinical relevance of this finding.(Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2003-2004;1:237-239)
Key Indexing Terms: Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; Depression; Case Reports; Muscle Weakness; Diagnosis; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied; Chiropractic