Janet Calhoon, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: An ongoing case study of a 43-year-old female with multiple sclerosis is updated.

Clinical Features: A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis from a medical neurologist was confirmed with MRI. The patient first came for treatment after having all of her amalgams removed and undergoing IV chelation therapy with no improvement. She was using a cane on one side and the support of her mother’s arm on the other. The patient’s current major complaints are pain in the tailbone, right shoulder, and right neck. Hair analysis showed that the mercury level remained unchanged after the amalgam removal and chelation therapy, and arsenic levels decreased slightly. The nutrient levels of magnesium, sodium, manganese, chromium, selenium, and cobalt all decreased; calcium and zinc increased.

Intervention and Outcome: Oral nutrient challenges were tested and mineral supplementation given. Nutritional counseling was given to the patient, and instructions on food combining offered. Basic AK treatment methods were employed that treated problems in the biochemical and structural areas. After 2 years of AK care she went from not being able to write a check to showering without assistance. The patient was a conditioned athlete at the onset of MS.

Conclusion: Treatment directed to basic structural, chemical, and emotional problems in this patient with multiple sclerosis improved her condition and reduced her pain. Concurrent neuro-radiologic studies are warranted to discover if the care rendered to this patient would benefit other patients with multiple sclerosis. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:1-2)

Key Indexing Terms: Multiple Sclerosis; Treatment; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Marcello Caso, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a female with cervical pain and tinnitus of 18 months duration that was co-treated using AK and an oral surgeon.

Clinical Features: A 52-year-old female presented with cervicalgia and incessant tinnitus of 18 months duration, especially in the right ear. The condition developed suddenly, 2 weeks after the implantation of a left inferior bridge by her dentist. The implant procedure was difficult for the patient, and there was a crack in the bridge that had to be repaired. Previous therapies of hypnosis and psychological evaluation, acupuncture, physical therapy, massage and chiropractic were of small benefit to her. An orthodontist made a bite splint for her, which she was using at the time of her visit to the author’s office, without benefit.

Intervention and Outcome: Evaluation of the bite for pre-contacts, by means of dental occlusion paper, revealed an anterior pre-contact at the incisors. AK MMT evaluation showed that the bite splint was not helping the patient, and the dentist agreed and made a new one for her. The AK neurologic tooth protocol was treated at the second pre-molar on the left. This was the first tooth of the bridge that was created 18 months prior. Injury Recall Technique was also applied to this tooth. Following the first treatment, palpatory pain of the oral musculature and cervical ROM were both improved. The relief was short lived. This treatment approach was done twice more, with only short-lived results. The author believed, because of the recurring problems, that some type of oral pathology should be ruled out. Another set of films was performed and a large, expansile, lytic lesion was found under the tooth in question. Oral surgery to repair the periodontosis was performed, as well as repair of the bridge. Several weeks after the surgery, the patient presented with a 50% decrease in cervical pain, as well as a decrease in the tinnitus.

Conclusion: Muscular inhibitions that are present on repeated office visits that do not respond to therapy should always be followed up by a more complete examination, occasionally using the expertise of other health professionals. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:3-5)

Key Indexing Terms: Periodontitis; Tinnitus; Neck Pain; Dental Care; Treatment; Case Reports; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Marcello Caso, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To describe the applied kinesiologic evaluation of Chapman’s neurolymphatic (NL) reflexes in the management of a male with a congenital bowel abnormality and its role in the manifestation of low back pain. The theoretical foundations of these reflexes will be elaborated upon and their clinical applications discussed.

Clinical Features: A 29-year-old man presented with chronic low back pain. Radiographs of the patient’s lumbar spine and pelvis were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a mild protrusion of the fifth lumbar disk. Oral anti-inflammatory agents, cortisone injections, and chiropractic manipulative therapy provided little relief. Though generally in robust health, the patient was aware of a congenital intestinal abnormality diagnosed when he was a child; it was thought to be of no consequence with regard to his current back condition.

Intervention and outcome: The patient’s history, combined with applied kinesiology examination, indicated a need to direct treatment to the large intestine. The essential diagnostic indicators were the analysis of Chapman’s neurolymphatic reflexes, coupled with an evaluation of the traditional acupuncture meridians. The primary prescribed therapy was the stimulation of these reflexes by the patient at home. This intervention resulted in the resolution of the patient’s musculoskeletal symptomatology, as well as improved bowel function.

Conclusion: The remarkable outcome from the application of this relatively simple, yet valuable, diagnostic and therapeutic procedure represents a thought-provoking impetus for future study and clinical application. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:7-9)

Key Indexing Terms: Gastrointestinal Disease; Low Back Pain; Chiropractic Manipulation; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

Heath Motley, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To make the argument that the HIV-AIDS hypothesis is scientifically unproven, and the treatment of carriers of HIV-AIDS with cytotoxic DNA chain terminators originally designed to kill growing human cells for chemotherapy, like AZT, has been a failure.

Data Sources: A literature synthesis of the work of Duesberg is presented.

Results: This paper proposes that American and European AIDS is caused by the long-term consumption of recreational and anti-HIV drugs like AZT. The evidence presented here includes: 1) AIDS is restricted to intravenous and oral users of recreational drugs and AZT; 2) AIDS is 87% male, because males consume this share of recreational drugs; 3) AIDS occurs in newborns, because mothers use recreational drugs during pregnancy; 4) AIDS is new in America, because AIDS is a consequence of the recreational drug use and of AZT prescriptions that started in 1987; 5) AIDS occurs only in a small fraction of recreational drug users, because only the highest life-time dose of drugs causes irreversible AIDS-defining diseases – likewise only the heaviest smokers get emphysema or lung cancer; 6) AIDS manifests as specific diseases in specific risk groups, because each group has specific drug habits. For example, pulmonary Kaposi’s sarcoma is exclusively diagnosed in male homosexuals who inhale carcinogenic alkyl nitrites; 7) AIDS does not occur in millions of HIV-positive non-drug users, and there are thousands of HIV-free AIDS cases, because AIDS is not caused by HIV; 8) evidence is cited showing that AIDS is stabilized, even cured, if patients stop using recreational drugs or AZT – regardless of the presence of HIV. The drug-HIV hypothesis predicts that AIDS is an entirely preventable and in part curable disease.

Conclusion: This paper suggests that the solution to AIDS could be as close as a very testable and affordable alternative to the HIV hypothesis – the drug-AIDS hypothesis. The hypotheses in this paper need thorough examination, review, and clinical evaluation. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:17-28)

Key Indexing Terms: HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Etiology; Drug Therapy; Zidovudine; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Epidemic; Communicable Disease Control

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a woman successfully treated with AK methods for episodic paroxysmal vertigo that had been present from childhood.

Clinical Features: A 17-year-old female presented with episodic paroxysmal vertigo that started at approximately 13 months of age. In her first 6 years of life she had episodes of vertigo and vomiting once a month that were from 4 to 30-40 hours in duration and usually began early in the morning while asleep. Thorough pediatric medical examination resulted in her taking Inderal, Periactin, and Meclizine, though they were not very helpful. She had an intense illusion of rotation toward the left and profuse vomiting. These symptoms had forced her out of high school. The symptoms were usually time related, with the vertigo waking her between 5 to 7 a.m. and continue until 3 p.m. when they stopped abruptly.

Intervention and Outcome: AK treatment of cranial and pelvic faults, a fixation at C1 and occiput, Yaw #2 left, and PRY-T were given on her first visit. The most significant factor was the lack of any meridian involvement, except for the Then and Now technique finding. TL to the alarm point for the start of the vertigo symptoms, and then the alarm point for the end of the vertigo symptoms was positive. In her case the vertigo begins at 6 a.m., which in the circulation of chi energy is the large intestine meridian, and 12:30 p.m., which is the heart meridian. Treatment was tapping H5 for 60 seconds. 4 treatments over the course of 7 months have kept this patient free from her episodic paroxysmal vertigo for 3 years.

Conclusion: The inclusion of AK evaluation and treatment of the meridian system, specifically the Then and Now technique, appears to be the proper treatment for this patient with episodic paroxysmal vertigo. Since there are many causes of vertigo, the use of AK to evaluate the whole person was able to discover the precise cause of vertigo in this particular case. Larger clinical trials are indicated for this debilitating condition. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:29-31)

Key Indexing Terms: Vertigo; Case Reports; Treatment; Acupuncture Points; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: A case series of 200 patients are examined to determine the correlation between spinous process tenderness and a subluxated vertebra as found with AK methods.

Clinical Features: 118 males and 82 females were evaluated, ranging from 5 to 75 years of age. Each patient was examined by manual palpation for spinous process sensitivity, and the patient gave a numerical value from 1 to 10 for the pain level. Care was used in assuring that the amount of pressure used would not cause pain in normal subjects. An electronic scale was used and found that 8 to 10 pounds of force was sufficient to elicit the tenderness response. After this examination method, each section of the spine that elicited tenderness to spinous process pressure was evaluated by standard AK MMT procedures to see if these sections would also therapy localize and be positive to challenge.

Intervention and Outcome: The study showed an 83.3% correlation between the presence of spinous process pain and subluxation findings using AK methods.

Conclusion: There are a number of criteria that chiropractors use to determine which vertebrae to adjust. Demonstrating a correlation between these findings is desirable. This paper demonstrates a statistically significant correlation between the signs and symptoms AK physicians use to determine the presence of vertebral subluxation and spinous process tenderness.

(Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:37-39)

Key Indexing Terms: Pain Measurement; Spine; Diagnosis, Differential; Chiropractic Manipulation; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case series and discussion of the effects of tapping the T2-T4 spondylogenic reflex areas of Dvorak and Dvorak for pain reduction in the lateral pterygoid muscles of the TMJ.

Clinical Features: Patients with TMJ problems are frequently found in clinical practice, and acute pain in the lateral pterygoid muscles is a frequent finding in these cases. An AK method is described for treatment that consists of contacting the involved lateral pterygoid muscle while the patient is seated and tapping firmly on the spinous and transverse processes of T2-T4. A theoretical discussion of how stimulation of peripheral mechanoreceptors can depress transmission of pain signals, and specifically how the AK treatment of the lateral pterygoid tenderness works, is offered. The relationship of stimulation to the T2-T4 levels and the lateral pterygoid pain reduction is presented.

Intervention and Outcome: The author discusses the endorphin system in his presentation, and he acquired a tablet form of sublingual naloxone and tested it on the patients in this study (a drug that blocks endorphin receptor sites). Naloxone produced diminution in pain for the lateral pterygoid muscles, as did the spondylogenic reflex tapping, suggesting that this AK treatment method may affect the endorphin system in the CNS.

Conclusion: The spondylogenic reflex treatment for pain in the lateral pterygoid muscle was successful in the 48 patients studied. In patients with painful TMJ syndromes, especially those with lateral pterygoid muscle dysfunction, treatment with AK methods may be beneficial. Larger clinical trials with greater controls are warranted.

(Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:41-45)

Key Indexing Terms: Temporomandibular Joint; Pterygoid Muscles; Clinical Trials; Models, Theoretical; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present an overview of urinary tract disorders, particularly interstitial cystitis, and a successful method of treatment using meridian therapy.

Clinical Features: Interstitial cystitis is a painful inflammation of the bladder that might be related to collagen disease, autoimmune disorders, allergic conditions, or an infectious agent not yet identified. A case series of 49 female and 1 male patient is presented.

Intervention and Outcome: A protocol of treatment is presented for patients with urinary tract or pelvic diaphragm problems. TL to the alarm point for the bladder was negative, but with simultaneous TL to the lung alarm point, it became positive. The author was able to neutralize this TL pattern in these patients by tapping bladder meridian’s second point, BL2 for 60 seconds on both sides. The author also treated the bladder’s associated point BL28. This method of treatment improved the bladder problem in all the patients in this study. The extent of improvement and the method of measuring this were not documented in this report.

Conclusion: This method had a high success rate for patients with urinary tract problems, including interstitial cystitis. Because interstitial cystitis afflicts millions of patients with bladder urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain, this method should be investigated for its value to these patients. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:49-50)

Key Indexing Terms: Cystitis, Interstitial; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease; Pelvic Pain; Case Reports; Diagnosis; Treatment; Acupuncture Points; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case series report and review on the skeletal motion created by respiration and its effects on patterns of muscle facilitation and inhibition.

Clinical Features: 100 patients (50 male and 50 female) were evaluated to discover if there was a specific relationship of the respiratory motion in the sacrum and ilium to the muscles that relate to each of these structures. All of the muscles that have origin or insertion on the innominate bones were tested. If they were inhibited, treatment to strengthen them was given before the research protocol was begun.

Intervention and Outcome: Each patient’s pelvis was challenged by hand bilaterally with 8 to 10 pounds of pressure at the ASIS in the opposite direction of the normal inspiratory motion (an upward and medial direction) for 4 or 5 cycles during inspiration. Each of the muscles that attach to the innominate was retested to discover if a weakening effect occurred. Profound muscle weakening was found in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fascia lata, rectus abdominus, internal and external obliques, and the entire 4 heads of the quadriceps. When sacral respiratory motion was challenged in reverse of its normal respiratory movement on inspiration (sacral base forward), only the hamstrings and adductors would weaken.

Conclusion: This study showed a specific relationship between the respiratory motion of the sacrum and innominate bones and the function of specific muscles that attach to them. When this motion is disturbed, specific muscle weaknesses occur. The importance of this finding should be investigated in larger groups of patients with spinal problems. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:51-52)

Key Indexing Terms: Respiratory Mechanics; Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System; Sacrum; Ilium; Kinetics; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Vasilyeva, L.F., Chernysheva, T.N., Korenbaum, V.I., Apukhtina, T.P.

Abstract: Objective: To report the results of electromyography changes in muscle strength in three patients who received sensory provocations of a mechanical, chemical, and emotional nature.

Clinical Features: Electromyographic measurement of the pectoralis major and the deltoid muscle was made during 3-second muscle contractions. The examiner found the muscles to be strong on MMT.

Intervention and Outcome: When the patients received sensory provocations, the examiner found muscle inhibition on MMT. The EMG amplitudes during the muscle tests were plotted graphically, and confirmed the changes in muscle strength detected manually by the examiner after sensory provocation.

Conclusion: The evaluation of muscle strength changes measured with an EMG instrument confirms that muscle strength changes can be detected by AK physicians using MMT methods after appropriate sensory provocation, and that this phenomena can be measured by instrumentation. AK muscle testing procedures can be objectively be evaluated through quantification of the electrical characteristics of muscles, and the course of AK treatments can be objectively plotted over time. Numerous clinical trials relating differing clinical conditions to changes in EMG measurements on MMT are called for. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:63-66)

Key Indexing Terms: Electromyography; Evaluation Studies; Neurologic Manifestations; Muscle Weakness; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Scott C. Cuthbert, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the assessment, diagnosis and successful chiropractic management of a patient with Bell’s palsy.

Clinical Features: A 51-year-old female presented with left-sided facial nerve paralysis, as well as intense neck pain and tingling in her left arm that had been present a week before the onset of the facial nerve paralysis. On examination her left lip was quivering, her left tear duct was pulsing, swollen and painful. Her vision was slightly blurred, and she had hyperacusis in her left ear. Her sense of taste was also affected by the problem, with a “mediciney taste mixed with rancid oil.” Sugar diluted in water was applied to the anterior 1/3 of the tongue with a cotton swab to evaluate the chorda tympani portion of the facial nerve, and a medicine like flavor was detected. A review of the neuroanatomy of cranial nerve VII is given, with possible entrapment neuropathies and disturbances to its function given.

Intervention and Outcome: Cranial and spinal adjustments were made as indicated by AK findings on examination. Tenderness along the left occipitomastoid suture was eliminated with a left inspiration, right expiration assist cranial fault correction, and compression of the 4th ventricle techniques. The deep neck flexor and sternocleidomastoid muscles were strengthened by these corrections. An occipito-atlantal fixation correction strengthened the psoas muscles. A category I pelvic fault was corrected. She was similarly treated 7 times over 24 days and was completely free of facial paralysis, without the slightest cosmetic residual problem apparent. The Bell’s palsy of 2 weeks duration had not returned 5 years later.

Conclusion: Further studies into AK and cranial treatments for facial nerve dysfunctions may be helpful to determine whether this single case study can be representative of a group of patients who might benefit from this care. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:67-72)

Key Indexing Terms: Facial Paralysis; Bell Palsy; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Terry M. Hambrick, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case series where the gastric acid level was measured with the Gastro-Test Kit from HDC, Inc. These values were then correlated with MMT of the pectoralis major, clavicular division muscle (PMC) as well as zinc levels measured with the zinc tally test in the patient series.

Clinical Features: The Gastro-Test procedure requires that the patient swallow a weighted capsule attached to a cotton string. The patient rests on their left side for 7 minutes, then the string is withdrawn. The cotton string is then swabbed with a reagent and reacts with the gastric juices that have soaked into the distal end of the string. The resultant color is matched with a color chart that reflects the pH of the gastric juices. Zinc status is measured with a saturated zinc solution that the patient holds in their mouth for 10 seconds. The patient reports their taste sensation to the examiner after this time. The predictable outcome is that the patient tastes nothing or has a strong sense of taste, with a grade scale from 1 to 4.

Intervention and Outcome: 5 students at a seminar were tested using the above parameters. The study found that an inhibited pectoralis major, clavicular division muscle was not reflective of reduced hydrochloric acid production as measured by the Gastro-Test kit. The one patient with alkaline gastric pH was also the only one to show a facilitated PMC. Zinc levels were normal in all participants but one and this subject demonstrated an inhibited PMC muscle.

Conclusion: These results challenge one of the more basic AK teachings which has shown itself to be clinically effective, i.e. that the PMC will be inhibited in cases of decreased hydrochloric acid production in patients. Possible complicating factors to the study are the sample size, the lack of screening for lumbo-dorsal fixations (that may mask the PMC weakness). The author suggests that further studies should be done to quantify and validate the correlation between an inhibited PMC muscle and gastric pH levels. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:111-113)

Key Indexing Terms: Gastric Acidity Determination; Achlorhydria; Diagnosis, Differential; Muscle Weakness; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Kinesiology, Applied

Keith Keen, Dip. Ac., D.O., D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present concepts regarding primitive and postural reflexes that can be retained past their normal age of integration and their use as a tool for physicians to find out why a child is not performing at their age level. Craniosacral corrections that assist the integration of retained primitive reflexes are presented.

Clinical Features: Neonates are routinely checked for the presence of primitive reflexes, as they are essential for their survival and normal development. The work of Capute, Blythe and Goddard are cited that show primitive reflexes may remain long after the normal age of integration. The reflexes described here are the Fear Paralysis Reflex; Moro Reflex; Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR); Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR); and Spinal Galant Reflex. The function of these reflexes is described, and the learning, developmental, and sensorimotor delays that the presence of these reflexes may produce if they are retained are discussed.

Intervention and Outcome: The author describes a retrospective statistical analysis study he performed in 1998 on a group of children. They were tested for retention of primitive reflexes by a neurodevelopmental assessor before and after the corrections described in this paper. The results of that study are reviewed, showing positive changes at probabilities ranging from p<.05 to p<.01 (Keen, 1999). Treatment involves placing the child into the position of the primitive reflex and then MMT of an indicator muscle for weakening. The doctor then must find what is causing the problem (what abolishes the indicator muscle change), and then correct this factor. A cranial or a sacral fault was usually found to be necessary.

Conclusion: Structural, mostly craniosacral, corrections were developed that assist the integration of retained primitive reflexes. The research offered shows that this therapy helps aspects of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Controlled clinical trials of this method for the treatment of these kinds of problems in children are necessary. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:121-127)

Key Indexing Terms: Reflex, Abnormal; Developmental Disabilities; Diagnosis, Differential; Muscle Weakness; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Datis Kharrazian, D.C., C.C.N., C.S.C.S., C.C.S.P.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the role of the proprioceptors in the skin and their role in causing reactive muscle patterns.

Clinical Features: In traditional AK methodology, the reactive muscle phenomenon occurs when a muscle becomes inhibited because of inappropriate proprioceptive impulses from another previously contracted muscle. This paper proposes that reactive muscle patterns can also be caused by aberrant afferent input from dermal proprioceptors in the skin, and that this aberrant input produces similar neurologic consequences as the reactive muscle phenomenon produced by aberrant muscle spindles.

Intervention and Outcome: The involvement of the skin can be diagnosed by challenging the skin manually over the hypertonic muscle in the reactive muscle pattern. The challenge is produced by gently tugging the skin in the vector that produces the reactive muscle finding. Treatment by tugging on the skin in the opposite direction that initiated the reactive muscle pattern corrects this pattern of reactive muscle inhibition.

Conclusion: The author recommends that the dermis be checked for its influence on reactive muscle patterns. It is a common finding in his experience, and corrects more thoroughly the reactive muscle patterns found clinically. Clinical trials to differentiate this treatment from treatment of the muscle spindles beneath the skin are warranted to discover which element has priority in the reactive muscle pattern. Outcome studies on the effects of this treatment in symptomatic patients are needed. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:129-130)

Key Indexing Terms: Proprioception; Dermis; Muscle, Skeletal; Muscle Spindles; Muscle Hypotonia; Physiological Processes; Diagnosis, Differential; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

David W. Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case of severe equilibrium problems successfully treated with cervical traction.

Clinical Features: A 48-year-old female presented with equilibrium problems of 16 months duration. She reported that the symptoms started 2 weeks after she stood up under the kitchen sink and hit her head, and the problem was made worse when she closed her eyes. 4 neurologists and another chiropractor had treated the patient with no change in symptomatology. She exhibited an abnormal gait that resembled a drunken swagger, and was able to stand with her feet separated at least 10 inches apart but lost her balance with the feet closer together. The technique of cervical traction while the patient is walking on a treadmill, first described by Fred Illi, D.C., of Geneva, Switzerland, is presented.

Intervention and Outcome: The patient showed marked inhibition of all her extensor muscles, and exhibited bilateral nystagmus. The weak extensors became strong after cervical traction challenge testing. The author used cervical traction of 6 pounds while the patient walked on a treadmill for 15 minutes. After this, she was able to stand with her feet together with no body sway. She presented no signs of nystagmus and her vertical height had increased by 2 inches after treatment.

Conclusion: In this case there appeared to be a pattern of muscle inhibition as a result of compression of the occipito-atlantal articulations. This showed on MMT as inhibition of the extensor muscles of the body. Use of a home cervical traction device with 6 pounds of water causing distraction while the patient moves in a walking pattern reversed the symptom pattern in this patient. Larger clinical trials of this method for the treatment of equilibrium and imbalance disorders are warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:133-134)

Key Indexing Terms: Musculoskeletal Equilibrium; Traction; Therapeutics; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case of cluster headache successfully treated using AK methods with an 8-year follow up and no recurrence.

Clinical Features: Cluster headaches represent one of the most severe forms of headache, causing some of its victims to commit suicide. In 85% of patients, the attacks are regular to the same hour or hours each day until the headache ends. Discussion of the theoretical pathogenesis of this problem from a literature review is presented. A 62-year-old male, with a 17-year history of cluster headaches, presents for treatment. The pain was severe and located over the entire left side of the face, accompanied by belching, facial pallor, conjunctival injection, nasal stuffiness and rhinorrhea, bradycardia, and lacrimation. He used Florinal to relieve the pain. The headaches occurred daily and although heavily medicated he would often lie on his back on the floor during his lunch hour and pound his head on the floor to create some relief.

Intervention and Outcome: Multiple cranial faults were found: bilateral sphenobasilar flexion, left laterally displaced occiput, left parietal descent, and right temporal parietal bulge cranial faults. The cruciate and sagittal sutures were compressed, and the left clavicle was displaced laterally. AK treatment was used for reducing the strain in the craniosacral system. Food related provocation of the cluster headache was suspected, and supplemental hydrochloric acid tablets, a digestive cleansing/bulking agent, and multivitamin and multimineral were given. The patient was treated 30 times over a 7-month period, and there was a progressive reduction in the intensity of the headaches. He was not seen for 6 months, and at that time the headaches were “practically gone.” The patient has been free of headaches since that time for 10 years.

Conclusion: A prospective, controlled clinical trial of chiropractic management in this condition is warranted, considering the absence of otherwise effective therapy. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:135-138)

Key Indexing Terms: Cluster Headache; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a herniated intervertebral cervical disc successfully treated by chiropractic methods.

Clinical Features: A 37-year-old female presents with signs and symptoms of C5 and C6 disc pathology. There had been two prior cervical acceleration/deceleration (CAD) accidents producing trauma to the cervical spine. The role of prior CAD in the pathogenesis of her problem is discussed, as are the altered biomechanical factors specifically assessed and treated using AK techniques combined with other physical modalities.

Intervention and Outcome: The patient was treated 49 times over a 6-month period and made a complete subjective and functional recovery. A pre-treatment MRI of the cervical spine showed “nucleus pulposus herniations at C5-6 level centrally and to the right,” that “appear to impinge on the thecal sac and extend into the right neural foramen.” A CT scan following myelography had the same findings. A post-treatment MRI of the cervical spine showed that though the herniated disc was still present, the previous “annular bulging” had improved with a reduction in the thecal sac impingement, and there was diminished foraminal encroachment (no extension to the right neural foramen on the post-treatment MRI study.

Conclusion: The effectiveness of chiropractic care for this type of condition compared to medical care is evaluated in this paper from the research literature, showing that chiropractic care for this kind of severe pathology can be successful that might otherwise require more costly and aggressive measures. The author suggests that not all patients with symptoms referable to a demonstrated herniated disc need be considered surgical candidates. More chiropractic clinical trials to evaluate this contention are underway. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:139-144)

Key Indexing Terms: Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Cervical Vertebrae; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Costs and Cost Analysis; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: The successful treatment of 2 patients with Bell’s palsy by manually correcting faults in the stomatognathic system is described.

Clinical Features: The natural history and prognosis of Bell’s palsy in the research literature is reviewed. 35 references are cited and discussed involving the pathogenesis, symptom picture, and prognosis of the condition. The first patient, a 57-year-old male, experienced right-sided facial paralysis 3-hours after chewing a “very thick crusted pizza while eating quickly” that had been present for 1 week. Multiple cranial disrelationships were found on examination, as well as TMJ movement problems, with masseter, temporalis, and pterygoid muscle hypertonicity. A cervical disc syndrome at the C4/5 and C5/6 levels were found, as well as a lumbar disc syndrome at L5/S1. The second patient, a 39-year-old male, had left-sided facial paralysis for 9 days. A few days prior he noted suboccipital and frontal headaches, left neck stiffness and a “tired feeling” came on with the facial paralysis, but that feeling subsequently cleared. Hyperacusis in the left ear was present also.

Intervention and Outcome: Treatment for both cases consisted of cranial, muscular, and spinal adjustments to normalize aberrant skeletal and cranial biomechanics. This treatment was accompanied by rapid and permanent resolution of the clinical problem of Bell’s palsy. Although the two patients were treated early in the course of their illnesses, the speed of their recovery and small number of treatments (4 treatments over a 6-day period in the first case, and 3 treatments over a 14-day period in the second case) is notable.

Conclusion: Alleviation of the structural problems in patients with Bell’s palsy, which are hypothesized to create the pathology, predispose to viral infection, or hinder healing, should be applied early on to shorten the course of the illness and to lessen the severity of the symptoms. The author states that he has found the same stomatognathic compartment syndrome in 12 other cases of Bell’s palsy, and all of these cases resolved adequately in a short time frame with this treatment. Well-designed clinical trials of this potentially life-altering condition are recommended. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:145-151)

Key Indexing Terms: Facial Paralysis; Bell Palsy; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

William Maykel, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case of a blocked tear duct in a 14-month-old child that was successfully treated using AK methods.

Clinical Features: A 14-month-old presented with poor drainage from his left eye causing it to be consistently crusty. The child had several colds over the past 6-months, and the child has been referred by the mother’s pediatrician to a pediatric plastic surgeon for surgical correction of the blocked tear duct.

Intervention and Outcome: Surrogate testing, utilizing the mother’s arm muscles was used to specify necessary treatment. Treatment of cranial faults, cervical, thoracic and lumbar dysarthrias, as well as bilateral sacroiliac sprain was given. A left parietal descent, right temporal-parietal bulge, bilateral sphenobasilar flexion, left internal frontal, and left external zygoma cranial faults were manually corrected by AK methodology. A category II pelvic fault on the left was corrected, as well as a left sacral inferiority that produced left rotation of L5, L3, C3 and C1 vertebrae. The left upper trapezius was strengthened by origin-insertion technique, and spasm of the masseter, temporalis, and pterygoid muscles were balanced manually. The child was treated 5-times over a 6-week period with complete resolution of the blocked tear duct.

Conclusion: Jamming of the orbital bones in this case as well as locking of the vault bones was suspected to lead to increased tension, then swelling and closure of the nasal lacrimal canal. This conservative, cost-effective approach may become the standard protocol in the future should subsequent studies validate this method of treatment. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:153-154)

Key Indexing Terms: Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases; Case Reports [Publication Type]; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Victor J. Portelli, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: This paper examines several clinical relationships that have been discovered by the author between the motion of an organ and specific MMT outcomes compared to general MMT outcomes to an organ challenge.

Clinical Features: MMT is found to be a useful tool to help in the identification of visceral fixations and their correction. The paper demonstrates methods of diagnosis and treatment using viscero-somatic reflexes using the heart and esophagus organs as examples. Pushing or pulling an organ into or out of ‘lesion’ while the doctor performs a MMT produces a visceral challenge. The author states that a visceral lesion refers to an organ that is in an incorrect anatomical position, has movement aberrations or adhesions, or has its blood or lymph supply compromised by an anatomical neighbor. A theoretical explanation of the mechanisms of the visceral challenge and of visceral therapy in general is presented. The anatomy of the heart and the esophagus is presented, as well as signs, symptoms and tests that may help the clinician identify when these organs may require this type of treatment.

Intervention and Outcome: Specific methods of challenge for the heart and the esophagus are given. Treatment protocols for positive findings on these tests are described. The relationship of the subscapularis muscle to the heart challenges, and of the supraspinatus muscle to the esophagus challenges are delineated. The numerous treatment methods for both the heart and the esophagus involve whole-body analysis and comprehensive therapy for these organs.

Conclusion: The author reports that visceral challenge reveals a neurological relationship exists between muscles and organs and that this relationship is muscle and organ specific. This relationship may be useful to determine whether physiologically normal patterns or aberrant biomechanical visceral faults are present in patients. Clinical trials with measurable outcome studies need to be done to validate this method of diagnosis and treatment. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:155-175)

Key Indexing Terms: Visceral Afferents; Visceral Prolapse; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Walter H. Schmitt, D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To present 3 new challenge techniques and therapeutic approaches for the evaluation of the enteric nervous system (ENS).

Clinical Features: The work of Michael D. Gershon, M.D., is reviewed. His discovery of the functioning of the enteric nervous system and the field of neurogastroenterology is described, and its clinical relevance illustrated. Fatty acids anywhere in the intestinal lumen stimulates the ENS to decrease peristalsis of the gut at the ileocecal area, what is called in AK the closed ileocecal valve (ICV) syndrome. This reflex exists to keep undigested fat from entering the colon where it may stimulate the growth of unfriendly flora. Carbohydrate also stimulates the ENS and produces an open ileocecal valve syndrome. The gastrocolic reflex causes increased peristalsis in the large intestine following food intake that stretches the stomach. When the stomach is stimulated by the presence of food, the colon is stimulated to empty. These reflexes have produced 3 sensory challenges that evaluate whether or not they are functioning properly.

Intervention and Outcome: Fatty acid function in the ENS is evaluated with the ileal brake challenge. First, normal ICV treatments are given if needed. Then, the doctor places a good fat like olive in the mouth. If this produces a positive challenge for the closed ICV, then the patient TLs to Chapman’s neurolymphatic reflexes (NL) for the pancreas, liver, gallbladder to identify which one negates the fat-induced closed ICV challenge. Nutrients may also negate the positive challenge and are tested. Treatment to the reflex and supplementation are given. Carbohydrate challenge for the open ICV syndrome involves placing sugar or other carbohydrate in the mouth. If this produces a positive open ICV challenge, then the patient TLs the NL for the small intestine. Treatment is by rubbing NL reflex with the carbohydrate that caused the weakening in the mouth. The gastrocolic reflex challenge has 3 steps. First, the doctor pinches the referred pain area for the stomach, puts pressure through the abdominal wall to stretch the stomach, and challenges for an open ICV or Houston valve. If challenge is positive, an offending dietary substance, when tasted, will cause a positive TL to the stomach Chapman’s reflex area. Rubbing this reflex with the offending substance in the mouth will negate the challenge. If there is a recurrence of this finding, the offending substance may have to be permanently avoided.

Conclusion: It appears that ENS concepts may be clinically applied by monitoring MMT outcomes following various specific sensory receptor challenges. It is suggested by the author that this treatment has improved patients’ complaints and decreased recurrence of a variety of digestive symptoms. Controlled clinical trials on appropriate patient cohorts are necessary. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:177-180)

Key Indexing Terms: Enteric Nervous System; Reflex, Abnormal; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Paul T. Sprieser, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a clinical finding connecting R.M.A.P.I. to functional hypoadrenia.

Clinical Features: 50 patients were part of this study, 29 females and 21 males. The R.M.A.P.I. is a finding in some patients whose muscles test weak after the patient repeatedly contracts the muscle. Each patient was evaluated for a number of factors including blood pressure lying, seated and standing (Ragland’s effect noted, or a drop in the systolic blood pressure). The ligament stretch reaction (associated in AK with adrenal stress disorder), and sphenobasilar cranial fault (sometimes associated with adrenal stress disorder) were tested in each patient.

Intervention and Outcome: Two methods of evaluating each patient in the study was performed. If R.M.A.P.I. was discovered during examination, then the other tests for hypoadrenia were performed. If the patient’s symptoms indicated hypoadrenia, these tests were performed as well as an evaluation of the R.M.A.P.I phenomenon. All of the patients in this study showed a drop in systolic blood pressure from lying to sitting or sitting to standing, a positive Ragland’s sign. All showed the sphenobasilar fault, the ligament stretch reaction, positive TL to the temporosphenoidal line when cross TL was done, and all patients showed one or more muscles that had the R.M.A.P.I. finding. The most common muscle to show the R.M.A.P.I. was the rectus abdominus. Nutritional support was needed by all cases to correct these findings in this study that included adrenal support with choline or adrenal tissue, and a low dosage of vitamin E from wheat germ oil or octacosanol.

Conclusion: This study showed that the R.M.A.P.I. phenomenon was a part of the adrenal stress syndrome. The mechanisms of this connection should be studied further, and other clinical trials to demonstrate the significance of this finding conducted.

(Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 2001-2002;1:181-182)

Key Indexing Terms: Muscles; Muscle Fatigue; Physiological Processes; Adrenal Insufficiency; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

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