Dean B. McGee, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case report of the treatments used for 7 years involving a patient with Type A hemophilia and H.I.V. who became H.I.V. negative.

Clinical Features: The author was treating an 8-year-old boy with hemophilia who had contracted H.I.V. The paper presents a yearly documentation of the patient’s condition and his treatment for H.I.V. The patient was tested frequently for his H.I.V. status. This included: CD4 level; CD4-CD8 ratio; P24 Ag tests (including the acid-wash and the Coulter tests); and the HIV-1 RNA Viral Load count. The lab values for the boy and many other assessment measures are given for each year from 1989-1998. These show that in May of 1997 the patient showed a viral load test of less than 400, at which time the virus was non-detectable in the blood. Follow up tests for his H.I.V. status had remained negative through December 1998.

Intervention and Outcome: The patient was treated with nutritional therapy, dietary counseling, and neuromuscular corrections to improve function and reduce pain, microcurrent, and pharmacological medications currently in use for H.I.V., A.I.D.S., and hemophilia treatment. These treatments were effective in reducing the patient’s pain, improving his digestive and immune systems, and reducing his viral load to the point where the H.I.V. could not be detected in the patient’s blood.

Conclusion: The author reports on a spectrum of therapies, both medical and chiropractic, that has resulted in the resolution of a reportedly incurable disease and to present possible treatment options to those who are managing similar cases. While this case report does not provide a formula for success with every H.I.V. patient, it does provide viable options that may have value to others. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:1-13)

Key Indexing Terms: HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Case Reports; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

John G. Sherman, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present the case of a man treated for low-test scores and slow reading times due to dyslexia and learning disorders.

Clinical Features: A 31-year-old male had been diagnosed with dyslexia and learning disorders by a psychologist in 1995. The patient had trouble reading and taking exams, and was a student in a chiropractic college. The patient had trouble in school from the age of 11 on, and must be given extra time for his written exams. He wears reading glasses that help decrease the incidence of letter reversal; he has motion sickness since the age of 16; and has asthma since birth. He uses Albuterol to help with his breathing.

Intervention and Outcome: After orthopedic and neurologic testing (all within normal limits) an AK examination was performed. Muscle weaknesses are described consistent with cranial faults and adrenal stress disorder, both of which were improved bilaterally with TL to the adrenal neurolymphatic and neurovascular reflexes. Treatment consisted of wearing two 800 gauss, non-polar magnets (2mm in diameter) directly over the adrenal neurolymphatic reflex points 24-hours a day for 4 weeks. The patient was seen twice weekly to evaluate the cross crawl and homolateral crawl patterns which weakened him on testing. After 4 weeks of this therapy, the patient was able to retain what he read after reading it once, thereby decreasing his reading time 10-15 minutes out of a 3-hour time period. He no longer fell asleep after reading 3 pages and can now read over 10 pages without fatigue. His class notes no longer contain as many switched letters as they once did. However, his test taking time has not changed significantly.

Conclusion: More research in different areas of magnetism is suggested by the author to determine if there really are any long-term benefits to this type of therapy. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:15-18)

Key Indexing Terms: Dyslexia; Learning Disorders; Case Reports; Magnetics; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

John G. Sherman, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: An AB time series study of a female patient with sacroiliitis secondary to ulcerative colitis is presented.

Clinical Features: A 23-year-old female complaining of leg pain caused by sacroiliitis participates in this study. The patient was hospitalized for ulcerative colitis and given steroid therapy at that time, and had surgery for a perforated ulcer caused by the steroid use. A surgical procedure called an endorectal ileal pull through was performed also. The pain from the sacroiliac joint was incapacitating at times. The pain increased when she sat but decreased with walking and movement.

Intervention and Outcome: The first phase of the study lasted 9 weeks where no intervention was done, and the subject’s condition was monitored by the Visual Analogue Scale and repeat muscle testing (aerobic muscle testing) of the right psoas. The second phase of the study was a 5-week intervention period where the subject supplemented her diet with omega three fatty acids once per day at bedtime, as determined by standard oral nutrient testing methods in AK. The supplement contained: marine lipid concentrate of 60 mg of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA); 40 mg of Docosohexiaonic Acid (DHA); Borage oil consisting of 15 mg of Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA); 107 mg of olive oil and 10 IU of vitamin E. The trends of the leg pain, both with and without supplementation, show no significant change. The patient’s compliance and VAS charting was good. No side effects from the supplement were reported. Concurrent with this study, ESR was performed during the first phase of the study and showed no significant inflammation was present.

Conclusion: The use of omega three fatty acids to decrease acute episodes of leg pain in a female subject with sacroiliitis secondary to ulcerative colitis did not appear to benefit her. Using other treatments (chiropractic manipulative therapy) during a study of this kind might prove beneficial. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:19-22)

Key Indexing Terms: Colitis, Ulcerative; Sacroiliac Joint; Arthritis; Fatty Acids, Essential; Case Reports; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Michel Barras, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present a 6-year clinical study, utilizing 6 professional logopedists, who investigated improvements in cognition tests in 117 children undergoing AK treatment.

Clinical Features: The hypothesis that head trauma is a causative factor of neurologic disorganization and the attendant problems with learning and behavior is presented. Because the early changes in cognitive function, reading, and social behavior can be so difficult to measure after head trauma, newer, more sophisticated and sensitive measurements of cognitive function have been necessary. A number of parameters and tests were used in 117 children who were experiencing the sequelae of head trauma called neurological disorganization. The 8 essential tests are described and supporting literature given. These tests evaluated the senses of visual memory and discrimination, auditory perception, discrimination and temporal orientation, right-left knowing, reading, control of facial muscles, spatial orientation and organization, writing words, social adaptation IQ, labyrinth function, Rey memory and copy time, and immediate recall capacity.

Intervention and Outcome: A before and after graph is presented showing that after appropriate AK treatment for the problems found in these children, major improvement in every measured function was the result. The corrective procedures employed were cranial holographic subluxation and first cervical subluxation corrections, and these were found to help children with lateralization problems, memorization, concentration, hyperactivity, motor coordination impairments and fine motor impairments.

Conclusion: This study shows that not only are pain and presenting symptomatology improved with AK evaluation and treatment of children with head injuries, but that a wide range of social, educational, and intellectual impairments were also markedly improved by AK treatment. Larger studies on children with learning problems are definitely warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:25-30)

Key Indexing Terms: Learning Disorders; Dyslexia; Adolescent Behavior; Brain Injuries; Craniocerebral Trauma; Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological; Validation Studies [Publication Type]; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Jeff Farkas, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a review of thyroid gland physiology, the incidence of its abnormality in the population, and to offer a treatment method based on AK nutritional principles.

Clinical Features: A thorough review of thyroid hormone physiology is presented, as well as a review of its epidemiology. A review of 12 of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism is given, as well as a review of the diagnostic methods used to determine hypothyroidism in patients. Several not so well known methods of diagnosing hypothyroidism are given, some of which make cases of symptomatic euthyroidism amenable to successful treatment.

Intervention and Outcome: A review of the nutritional factors needed in the treatment of the under active thyroid are presented, as well as the use of diagnostic techniques described in AK literature are reviewed.

Conclusion: The most effective therapy for a particular patient must be customized for that patient individually, and this process is facilitated by incorporating AK into the diagnostic and treatment regimen of patients with this condition. Further research into the problem of hypothyroidism and functional medicine are warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:41-52)

Key Indexing Terms: Thyroid Gland; Hypothyroidism; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

James D.W. Hogg, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a method of pulse analysis using MMT as well as a patient questionnaire in order to classify individuals by the 10 Ayurvedic constitutional types.

Clinical Features: A discussion of the fundamental tenets of Ayurvedic medicine is presented. In Ayurveda, the five elements – space, air, earth, fire and water – make up the universe, including the human body. These elements come together to create three different constitutional types, or doshas: Vata (airy), Pitta (fiery), and Kapha (earthy). Constitutional typing is a key component to Ayurvedic care. Descriptions of the three types, their physical, mental, behavioral, and athletic profiles are described.

Intervention and Outcome: Pulse analysis is a major Ayurvedic analytical tool and like Traditional Chinese Medicine’s pulse analysis, it can take considerable time to develop the accuracy needed to be reliable in the clinical setting. The author describes a method of therapy localization to the pulse points and the findings that may occur.

Conclusion: Ayurveda is a 5,000-year-old system of health care from India that is gaining recognition in the west for its effectiveness. The translation of the Ayurvedic pulse analysis procedures into MMT format allows the doctor who is proficient in AK quick and accurate access to the Ayurvedic method of constitutional typing and treatment. The author argues that once a patient’s dosha is understood, the doctor can make more informed recommendations with regard to diet, lifestyle changes, and types of exercise to promote health. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:93-102)

Key Indexing Terms: Medicine, Ayurvedic; History; Evaluation Studies; Diagnosis; Kinesiology, Applied

Datis Kharrazian, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To describe two treatment protocols to normalize aspects of the ascending and the descending reticular formation.

Clinical Features: The author recommends that doctors correct the ascending and descending reticular formation pathways first before they use other AK challenges. A general function of the reticular formation is to regulate the level of consciousness and arousal that come from somatosensory, auditory, visual and visceral systems. A discussion of the neurological pathways and functions of the reticular system is presented, and its relationship to MMT. If the reticular system is not functioning at an optimal level the sensory challenges used in AK may not be reaching higher levels of the nervous system adequately. These two techniques are for patients who have minimal facilitation with TL, gustatory motor responses, and other afferent pathway stimulations.

Intervention and Outcome: An approach to evaluate and treat the reticular system is discussed. It requires the doctor to begin with a facilitated indicator muscle. The doctor then claps next to the patient’s ears to stimulate the reticular activating system. If the ascending reticular system is not properly functioning the patient will then demonstrate a supra-segmental injury recall pattern (I.R.T. is discussed elsewhere in the Collected Papers). The correction is made with clapping and then performing I.R.T. The descending reticular system is challenged by the doctor giving one clap next to the patients ears (no muscle weakness is present in this case, if it is the previous protocol is used), and having the patient TL each of the Beginning and Ending points to see if a weakness is induced. The doctor then claps and taps the indicated B and E point for 10 seconds and then performs IRT to make the correction.

Conclusion: Because the reticular formation connects higher brain centers to the anterior horn of the spinal cord, it is important to test the function of the reticular system first before testing the motor system. Investigations of this treatment hierarchy are warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:103-108)

Key Indexing Terms: Reticular Formation; Predictive Value of Tests; Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological; Treatment; Treatment; Acupuncture Therapy; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

David W. Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To provide examination methods for evaluation of the foot and ankle.

Clinical Features: Inspection of the patient’s feet is one of the key ingredients in helping decide where examination of the patient begins. The visual analysis of the foot and ankle has three parts: static examination of the foot weight bearing and non-weight bearing; examination of the foot while the patient is rising onto his toes; and finally examination of the feet and ankle during walking or running. Shoes and socks should be removed.

Intervention and Outcome: Static examination will reveal areas of excess friction of the skin, blisters and calluses; discolorations of the skin, nails and signs of circulatory problems; alignment of the metatarsals and tarsals and the condition of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. While standing, observe the alignment of the Achilles tendon; the condition of the longitudinal and transverse arches; excessive dropping of the navicular; the lateral expansion of the foot; lateral displacement of the cuboid; the amount of toeing in or out the foot makes from the midline; the amount of internal or external rotation of the femur compared to the feet. When the patient rises to their toes note the ability to maintain balance; does the great toe suddenly lift into the air. The final phase involves observation of the patient’s feet, ankle and lower leg while walking.   These postural clues will help determine which muscles, joints, and ligaments need specific AK testing.

Conclusion: With practice the doctor can quickly evaluate the mechanics of motion and shorten the diagnostic time needed to find problems in the patient’s feet. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:109-112)

Key Indexing Terms: Foot; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Eric Kees Peet, D.C., and Karen Clister, D.D.S.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case report using the Myotronics K6-I bioelectronic measuring devise showing improved electromyographic activity and range of movement within the craniomandibular muscles in a patient with jaw pain who had co-management between functional dentistry and AK.

Clinical Features: Bioelectronic analysis of TMJ function as a diagnostic aide has been used in the field of functional dentistry for many years and is well established. Its use for documenting changes from AK therapy is new. An 11-year-old male had been experiencing symptoms of jaw pain and headaches for 6 weeks following an automobile accident. After AK treatment, a staff technician of the dental office performed the Myotronic K6-I computer assessments on the boy after treatment in a separate room and was blinded from the AK testing and treatment procedures.

Intervention and Outcome: AK examination showed a pyramidal distribution of weakness of his left extensor muscles, which correlated with enlargement of the left physiological blind spot. Articular dysfunction was found in the right SI joint, right lower lumbars, right lower cervicals, and mid-thoracic fixations. Both ankles were subluxated. His cranium had a torque pattern involving both temporal bones, with suture restriction in a left internal frontal bone cranial fault pattern. AK oral nutrient testing was performed and dietary and nutritional counseling given. Graphs presented from the Myotronics instrument showed, post-manipulation, that the boy demonstrated improvement in virtually every measured variable. Subsequent office visits revealed both subjective and objective improvement in his condition.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that AK procedures produced remarkable improvements in TMJ function. Further research using this kind of instrumentation on larger patient cohorts is warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:125-131)

Key Indexing Terms: Temporomandibular Joint Disorders; Craniomandibular Disorders; Electromyography; Myography; Evaluation Studies; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Walter H. Schmitt, D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To present a neurological model for the effects of cranial manipulation.

Clinical Features: The model is based on afferent pathways from dural nociceptors and cranial mechanoreceptors that have their primary synapses in the cervical spinal cord. The secondary effect of cranial afferents upon motor activity in the cervical spine is documented. The effects of cervical afferents on the cerebellum, in turn, alter efferents from the cerebellum that in turn explains the diverse clinical effects observed after the use of cranial techniques.

Intervention and Outcome: The cerebellum efferents modulate the activities of vision, autonomic function (e.g. when a patient gets dizzy they also get nauseous via these neurologic pathways), somatic and autonomic motor activity of the reticulospinal tracts, vestibulospinal tracts, and feedback into cortical tracts. Summarizing this presentation, it is possible to see how cranial nociception arising from cranial faults are capable of disrupting many neurological pathways, making plausible neurologically how cranial faults produce widespread spinal and other structural changes seen with cranial technique.

Conclusion: Sutherland, DeJarnette, and numerous other clinical pioneers originally proposed the traditional explanation of cranial techniques and their effects. But their explanations are at least 50 years old, based on outdated or never proven physiology. The modern neurological description given in this paper is plausible and based on principles of physiology that are accepted in the textbooks of neurology today. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:133-135)

Key Indexing Terms: Models, Neurological; Neurology; Cranial Neuropathies; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To present a neurological model for understanding the effects of the author’s Injury Recall Technique (IRT).

Clinical Features: The three major sensory inputs for postural control are the eyes, the inner ears (the vestibular mechanism), and mechanoreceptors from the ankle joint. Postural adaptation depends on cerebellar integration of all three areas and its efferent supply to brainstem centers for descending pathways to motor neuron pools. The neurology of cerebellar adaptation and habituation to areas of injury and trauma is presented, as well as its hypothesized correction using IRT.

Intervention and Outcome: If an injury to the body is one that requires IRT, the cerebellar adaptations to the injury creates an alteration in posture, part of which is reflected in ankle proprioceptive adaptations to the injury. The positive test for IRT is when a conditionally facilitated (strong) muscle becomes conditionally inhibited (weak) when the area of previous injury is activated by patient touch or doctor stimulation while the talus bone is challenged in a headward direction. Correction of IRT is by micro-manipulation of the talus in a distal direction while the area of injury is activated.

Conclusion: The author suggests that a normalization of the accompanying concomitants to plasticity-altered (adapted) cerebellar and cerebral function explains the far-reaching effects achieved by IRT. This includes in his experience changes in sensory and motor functions, autonomic concomitants, and improved cognitive function. Controlled clinical trials to test these methods are indicated. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:137-139)

Key Indexing Terms: Models, Neurological; Neurologic Manifestations; Spinal Injuries; Soft Tissue Injuries; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., D.I.B.A.K., D.A.B.C.N.

Abstract: Objective: To review the principles of transneural degeneration (TND) and present biochemical and nutritional factors that should be corrected in the TND patient.

Clinical Features: TND is the process of neuronal degeneration that ultimately can lead to neuron cell death. It is a process found in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disease processes. It is a process associated with stroke, head trauma, and other neural injury. When there is deafferentation to a neuron or group of neurons (which may be due to lack of normal mechanoreceptor activity due to spinal subluxations, muscle imbalances, immobility following injury, and nutritional and chemical deficiency) the normal function of the deafferentated neurons will be compromised.

Intervention and Outcome: The research of the author has shown that restoration of neuron health will not occur without restoration of membrane receptor activation which is largely dependent upon restoration of normal afferentation, including normal mechanoreceptor activity, throughout the body, as well as correcting the chemical deafferentation that results from nutritional deficiencies. Macronutrients, micronutrients (neurotransmitters, for instance, are amino acids or amino acid derivatives, and each amino acid requires between 3 and 8 vitamins and minerals to be activated), antioxidants and essential fatty acid supplementation for TND are reviewed. The citric acid cycle’s role and heavy metal toxicity as contributors to TND is presented also.

Conclusion: This study shows that the chemical problems associated with TND are best addressed by dietary and nutritional supplementation. The author states that giving a multiple vitamin and mineral is no more adequate than is a general chiropractic manipulation for patients with TND, and may even be dangerous due to the cellular apoptosis that may result. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:149-156)

Key Indexing Terms: Spinocerebellar Degenerations; Neuron Degeneration; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Barton Stark, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present a method of testing patients for excess carbon dioxide as an indicator of metabolic acidosis.

Clinical Features: Acid control is an important issue in the maintenance of homeostasis. Traditionally, AK doctors have used various indicators such as oral and urinary pH, teres major function, and the many signs and symptoms of acid-alkaline imbalance described in the AK literature. A review of the physiological state of acidosis is presented.

Intervention and Outcome: The challenge described in this paper is accomplished by testing a previously strong indicator muscle for weakening following a patient’s rebreathing his or her own CO2. When the challenge is positive, the resultant muscle weakness can be utilized to discover causal relationships and methods of correcting the positive finding. The author suggests that a positive CO2 excess challenge test suggests an excess of acid in the body, or a diminished ability to handle even a momentary increase in acidity; these patients also frequently have an oral pH of 6.0 or less. AK treatment for patients with acidosis is reviewed and may involve the adrenal glands, kidneys, liver, intestines, protein metabolism, and nutritional support.

Conclusion: The importance of acid control in patients is apparent, and the sometimes-ambiguous constellation of symptoms occurring when the acid-alkaline balance is jeopardized indicates the value of a non-invasive, easy-to-use test for the clinician. Clinical trials of this method of testing with concurrent biochemical studies would be appropriate. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1999-2000;1:167-171)

Key Indexing Terms: Acidosis; Acidosis, Respiratory; Breath Tests; Neurologic Manifestations; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

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