Michel Barras, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present two studies involving 56 children (age 10 to 11) and 66 females (age 17 to 19), respectively in order to determine the incidence of neurological disorganization (ND).

Clinical Features: In AK, ND is an abnormal condition in which the nervous system signals or interprets signals improperly, causing apparent confusion within the body. This is of particular importance in AK examination because erroneous information may be derived from the various testing procedures used. ND produces an observable modification of muscle and gait coordination, one manifestation of which is homolateral locomotion (the right leg and arm move forward together with the left leg and arm moving backward together, and vice versa).

Intervention and Outcome: Gait testing on all the participants of the study was performed. This involved a MMT of the general forearm flexor muscles with the feet in a neutral position. Then the forearm muscles were tested with the arm forward on the opposite side of the forward leg (contralateral static gait position). The forearm muscles were tested again with the arm forward on the same side as the forward leg (homolateral static gait position). Results: 41 out of 56 children (73.2%) in the first study showed a homolateral gait versus the normal contralateral (this is a sign of ND). In the second group of 66 females, 87.9% of the participants were homolateral. In all cases, a cranial corrective procedure involving the contralateral frontal and occipital bones converted the gait testing from homolateral to contralateral.

Conclusion: The author suggests that homolateral ND is the consequence of head   trauma because a cranial correction abolished the ND.   This study also shows that over 75% of the population by the age of 11 has ND. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:1-5)

Key Indexing Terms: Brain Injuries; Epidemiology; Gait Disorders, Neurologic; Neurologic Manifestations; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Daniel H. Duffy, Sr., D.C.

Abstract: Objective: This paper suggests that a panic attack (PA) is an intellectualized response (conversion hysteria) to internal sensations generated by a catecholamine response (CR) initially, and later, PA is provoked by a sudden drop in circulating glucose levels.

Clinical Features: The metabolic and psychological effect of the CR is reviewed. The author points out that the physical sensations elicited by fear and anxiety are similar to those elicited by a sudden drop in blood sugar are similar, and suggests that both arise from a sudden release of catecholamines. Physiologically, the sensations arising during a panic attack are caused by a CR to a sudden drop in blood sugar also known as the “fight or flee response.” The sudden drop in circulating glucose is more frequently provoked by insulinogenic foods of high glycemic index rather than psychological or other physical factors. The author argues that operant conditioning subsequently links the internal sensations of the CR with external events, thus creating a PA. Sudden changes in the cellular environment that occur with blood sugar imbalances, involving the cells’ fuel source, sets off this alarm system.

Intervention and Outcome: The author’s clinical experience has shown that stabilizing blood sugars with proper diet and subluxation correction, along with strong moral support, eliminates the PA syndrome. A treatment protocol to control blood sugar levels (especially the rate of change in blood sugar level) is given. AK treatment to the structural imbalances in the body, small intestine, liver and pancreas treatment, and improvement of the adrenal stress syndrome has been effective for the author in the treatment of PA.

Conclusion: During a PA, the functional relationship between blood sugar levels, insulin release, and CR are often ignored by doctors and patients. It is the opinion of the author that most habitual sufferers of PA are the victims of dietary indiscretions that cause wildly fluctuating blood sugar levels. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:15-20)

Key Indexing Terms: Panic Disorder; Catecholamines; Insulin; Blood Glucose; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

John W. Brimhall, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present evidence that elevated homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for vascular and other disease, and to show how AK testing can help identify this risk.

Clinical Features: Research literature is reviewed to show that many conditions may result from elevated homocysteine, including neural tube defects, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, renal failure, type II diabetes, and neuropsychiatric conditions. The author performed a literature search and found 1,000 articles in the literature in the past 5 years on homocysteine. The biochemistry of homocysteine metabolism is presented, as well as the use of folic acid, B12, B6, methionine, magnesium, niacin, betaine, and trimethylglycine that allow the breakdown of homocysteine into nontoxic forms.

Intervention and Outcome: The author shows that an AK oral challenge of homocysteine (using just a tiny amount on the patient’s tongue) will cause a previously strong muscle to test weak in the case of elevated homocysteine levels. The administration of the proper nutrient will abolish the weakness.

Conclusion: There is a high percentage of the population that weakens to the oral challenge of homocysteine. The growing awareness of the importance of homocysteine levels in cases of vascular and other diseases makes this suggested method of diagnosis and nutritional treatment worthy of further scientific and clinical investigation. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:31-36)

Key Indexing Terms: Homocysteine; Methionine; Folic Acid; Vitamin B 12; Vitamin B 6; Betaine; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Diagnosis; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

John M. Corneal, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: A retrospective case series involving 200 patients with whiplash related injuries are reviewed.

Clinical Features: Whiplash accidents causing hyperextension/hyperflexion injury of the cervical spine create significant functional impairments and are very prevalent today. These injuries are ineffectively treated frequently by current medical diagnosis and therapy. Consistent physical findings in these 200 cases are presented, including: +3 muscle weakness as listed in the Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 4th Edition by the American Medical Association; +3 muscle weakness of all neck flexors; multiple muscle weaknesses of the upper and lower extremities; palpable areas of pain in the muscles; organ sensitivity to palpation; cranial faults; and the elimination of these indicators with patient cervical flexion (a tucking of the chin to the chest). Radiographic findings are reviewed, and the hypothesis of spinal cord injury due to the injuries of whiplash injury is presented.

Intervention and Outcome: Treatment begins with the examination of all muscles involved, including the hyoid muscles. The author states that Golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are most frequently disturbed, followed by spindle cell proprioceptors needing strain-counterstrain and spindle cell toning techniques. Cervical manipulation was necessary in less than 1% of these cases. Most patients reported 75-90% improvement in symptoms after initial treatment.   The author states that in post treatment radiographs two days after initial treatment there appeared to be no change in the structures treated, although objective and subjective indicators had changed dramatically. 3-month post treatment radiographs showed a decrease in posterior and anterior displacement of the cervical spine. The author says it may take up to 6 months healing time in severe cases of whiplash injury.

Conclusion: Once normal muscle function is restored the structural malpositions, fixations and subluxations of the whiplash injury complex were resolved. Successful treatment of a potentially devastating condition that is widespread in the population is demonstrated using AK techniques. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:49-52)

Key Indexing Terms: Whiplash Injuries; Neck Injuries; Spinal Cord Injuries; Case Management; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Wolfgang. Gerz, M.D., D.I.B.A.K., David. Leaf, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To discuss the physiology and terminology relating to acid/alkaline balance.

Clinical Features: Since the mid-1960s, AK has been investigating acid/alkaline conditions in patients. This paper reviews these findings and presents a common terminology in order to facilitate the integration and use of AK in complementary and alternative medicine (C.A.M.). European physiological writings on this subject are reviewed, and differences between the terminology used there and in AK are described. The physiological facts and measurement systems of acid/alkaline imbalances are presented. The pH of different compartments of the body is quite varied, and these are reviewed. The many factors that may affect the pH of these different body parts are listed.

Intervention and Outcome: The AK approach for determining acid/alkaline imbalances, and the treatment methods employed to improve problems in this area are described.

Conclusion: There is not much difference between AK and mainstream medicine on the subject of acid/alkaline balance once terminology is understood. It is vital to achieve a balanced acid/alkaline status to correct disturbances of intracellular metabolism. The topic of acidosis and alkalosis is far more complex and important to patients’ well being than is frequently taught. Further clinical trials using the methods described in this paper are warranted. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:53-61)

Key Indexing Terms: Acid-Base Imbalance; Acidosis; Alkalosis; Achlorhydria; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Diagnosis; Treatment; Kinesiology, Applied

Steven J. Hansen, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: A case series of 5 patients having mitral valve prolapse were found also to demonstrate the ligament stretch reaction.

Clinical Features: 5 patients presented for evaluation of various complaints. The patients described joint pain after stretching and activity and pain following chiropractic and osteopathic manipulation. A review of the condition of mitral valve prolapse is given, as well as hypoadrenia.

Intervention and Outcome: On physical examination, those patients presenting with a medically diagnosed mitral valve prolapse were found to be hypoadrenic, specifically demonstrating the ligament stretch reaction, which is one indication in AK of hypoadrenia. A mineral imbalance due to depressed adrenal function may cause a weakening of ligaments. The ligament stretch reaction is diagnosed by stretching a ligament that produces a weakening of a strong indicator muscle after the stretch. The patients were treated to stabilize the ligament stretch reaction. This included dietary measures such as eliminating stimulants like coffee, tea,cola and refined sugars. AK oral nutrient testing showed a need for adrenal gland nutritional support.

Conclusion: The correlation in 5 patients of mitral valve prolapse and the ligament stretch reaction (a common finding in patients with hypoadrenia) is presented. Further studies involving larger patient cohorts with mitral valve prolapse are needed. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:63-65)

Key Indexing Terms: Mitral Valve Prolapse; Adrenal Insufficiency; Biological Markers; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Steven J. Hansen, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case report of a male whose vertigo resolved after successful AK treatment of food allergies.

Clinical Features: A 14-year-old male presented with dizziness, upset stomach and headaches of 2 weeks duration, with no prior history. He was prescribed meclizine, which gave no relief.

Intervention and Outcome: Initial treatment to the structural faults found (spinal, cranial, muscular) was employed. The patient had frequent recurrences due to injuries at his parents’ farm. The cessation of vertigo began when oral testing of food allergens (corn, wheat, histidine)   no longer caused muscle inhibition. Dietary restrictions and nutritional support for the digestive system were the treatments used.

Conclusion: Patients presenting with vertigo without frank pathology are often prescribed medications for symptoms without identifying the cause. Medications are prescribed to sedate labyrinthine function (Dramamine), or depress the CNS (perphenazine), or are given an anti-histamine (meclizine). Histamine is related to some forms of vertigo, and allergies are related to histamine production. The author states that AK offers a tool to help patients who have vertigo triggered by a histamine reaction related to allergies. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:67-69)

Key Indexing Terms: Food Hypersensitivity; Vertigo; Wheat Hypersensitivity; Zea mays; Histamine; Diagnosis; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

James D.W. Hogg, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a method of pulse analysis using MMT in order to discover Ayurvedic constitutional (mind-body or “dosha”) types.

Clinical Features: A discussion of the fundamental tenets of Ayurvedic medicine is presented. In Ayurveda, the five elements – space, air, earth, fire and water – make up the universe, including the human body. These elements come together to create three different constitutional types, or doshas: Vata (airy), Pitta (fiery), and Kapha (earthy). Descriptions of the three types and their constitutional profiles are described. The subdoshas are areas of bodily function controlled by the doshas and these are delineated.

Intervention and Outcome: Pulse analysis is a major analytical tool in Ayurvedic medicine and reveals the dosha of the patient and imbalances in the subdoshas. A method of therapy localization and MMT is described for revealing the findings of Ayurvedic pulse analysis through MMT. A protocol of pulse point evaluation is offered.

Conclusion: Ayurveda is a 5,000-year-old system of health care from India that is gaining recognition in the west for its effectiveness. The author presents the case that Ayurveda is a natural component in a holistic, functionally oriented practice. This method of analysis can be incorporated into an AK approach to patient evaluation, and is especially useful in the author’s experience with chronic or difficult cases. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:71-79)

Key Indexing Terms: Medicine, Ayurvedic; History; Evaluation Studies; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Kinesiology, Applied

Philip Maffetone, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To present the view that the term “joint complex dysfunction” (JCD) is more appropriate when used in the applied kinesiology approach than the word “subluxation.”

Clinical Features: AK seeks to treat the entire individual, including the structural, biochemical, and emotional factors. The term joint complex dysfunction includes the problems associated with physical inactivity that leads to a deconditioning syndrome, and JCD can exist long before any joint misalignment or tissue injury occurs. In addition to spinal joint injury and degeneration, many people exist in a state of cardiovascular deconditioning due to sedentary living. Arguments relating cardiovascular and aerobic deconditioning to spinal deconditioning are offered.

Intervention and Outcome: Nutrition and dietary assessment is also an important aspect of patient care that is often avoided by chiropractors, osteopaths and medical doctors. This is a serious concern because treatment procedures often reduce pain and make patients feel better, despite the existence of numerous nutritional deficiencies and the deconditioning syndrome that may be producing their JCD in the first place. To correct the JCD thus involves restoring joint motion, rehabilitating deconditioned tissues, and reducing chemical mediator release. The importance of treating our patients in this type of integrated approach is stressed in AK therapy. Methods of treating the deconditioning syndrome in AK are offered.

Conclusion: At the present time, it is the rare doctor who focuses on addressing the deconditioning syndrome. Many practitioners focus on palliative care, rather than corrective care. It should be understood that the deconditioning syndrome will not resolve unless the patient becomes an active participant in the process. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:83-89)

Key Indexing Terms: Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Cardiovascular Deconditioning; Terminology; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Philip Maffetone, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To review the science regarding selected assessment and treatment procedures commonly used in AK practice.

Clinical Features: This paper introduces the reader to the substantial research in peer reviewed, indexed journals which support procedures used in AK. 157 references are presented and reviewed that relate to specific tests and treatments in AK, as well as outcome studies showing the validity of these methods. A variety of assessment tools are reviewed, including the use of patient information forms, blood pressure changes, vital capacity, body temperature, nutritional testing, dietary therapy, and muscle testing.

Intervention and Outcome: The goal of AK methodologies is to allow the practitioner to match the needs of the patient with the most appropriate therapies, which include techniques in hands on therapy, manipulation (cranial, extravertebral, and spinal), nutrition, “reflex therapies” (Chapman and Bennett), and meridian therapy (traditional Chinese medicine). Included also are the assessment of and treatment for exercise, diet, stress, and other lifestyle factors.

Conclusion: This in depth presentation of the scientific studies underlying the methods used in AK, combined with the dramatic clinical outcomes that result from AK therapy can help practitioners, students, and patients find support for AK methods. We must not only understand the art and science of our profession, but also be ready to teach others in the same light. The scientific rationale behind the AK approach to patient care is important to this endeavor. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:91-110)

Key Indexing Terms: Kinesiology, Applied; Validation Studies [Publication Type]; Reproducibility of Results; Methodology; Systems Analysis; Review [Publication Type]

Eric Kees Peet, D.C.

Abstract: Objective: To describe a new conceptual model about how the body and the cranium interact.

Clinical Features: Utilizing the technique of triplaner cranial analysis (whose origins come from functional dentistry and were introduced into AK by Dr. Bob Walker) to compliment postural analysis, asymmetrical relationships between the body’s geometry and the cranium’s geometry can be observed. A certain pattern of cranial fault will correlate with the pyramidal pattern of muscle weakness found in patients. The effect of improper aerobic metabolism upon the pyramidal pattern of muscle weakness is described. The trigeminal nerve’s effect upon the cranium is delineated. The neurological disturbances of cranial faults are reviewed, with specific descriptions of the sphenoid, occipital, and temporal bones. Specific findings related to cranial faults are described, helping to better diagnose patients.

Intervention and Outcome: Cranial geometry is variable depending on the muscle tension pattern, and this can be altered with AK techniques and sustained by aerobic metabolism. The treatment for the cranium and the aerobic metabolism is reviewed.

Conclusion: When a patient’s metabolism is chronically anaerobic, the pyramidal distribution of weakness influences the cranial structure by a chronic tension imparted from the TMJ musculature. This alters the cranial geometry over time in a predictable pattern. These patterns can be observed using triplaner cranial analysis, and confirmed using neurologic testing and AK techniques. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:133-147)

Key Indexing Terms: Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Skull; Biological Markers; Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Cecilia A. Duffy, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present two cases of acute otitis media and one of serous otitis media that was successfully managed with AK technique.

Clinical Features: Case 1 was a female age 11 who presented with complaints of right-sided earache, sinus drainage, nausea and shakiness for 2 days. Examination of the ear canal revealed erythema with the tympanic membrane bulging with fluid and loss of tympanic landmarks. Case 2 was a male age 7 with complaints of left sided earache and sore throat for 2 days. Examination of the ear canal revealed an erythematous tympanic membrane with fluid and bubbles noted on the inferior aspect. Case 3 was a male age 6 who presented with hearing loss of 2 months duration. The patient’s audiologist stated there was a 30% reduction in hearing in both ears. Examination of the ears was negative for fluid or bubbles behind the tympanic membrane.

Intervention and Outcome: Case 1 was treated once for diaphragm imbalance with reactivity of the left psoas muscle (when the psoas was contracted, the diaphragm test became positive); fascial release of the right pectoralis minor muscle; reduction of subluxations at the right occiput, T4, and fixation of the C7-first rib bilaterally. Nutritional supplementation consisted of thymus extracts, vitamins A and C, calcium and magnesium (Congaplex from Standard Process labs). Dosage was 1 every waking hour. Two days later, the patient’s symptoms were much reduced. 1 week later, the patient was asymptomatic. Case 2 was treated twice in a 4-day period. Treatment involved fascial release of the left sternocleidomastoid muscle and reduction of a C1 subluxation. Nutritional supplementation of calcium and magnesium and Congaplex was given. The second visit showed the sore throat as cleared, but the earache remained. Treatment involved fascial release of the right pectoralis minor muscle; neurolymphatic for the right sartorius muscle stimulated; reduction of C2, T7, and category II ilium subluxations. 5 days later examination revealed no fluid in the middle ear and mild erythema to the tympanic membrane, with no symptoms of earache or sore throat. Case 3 was treated 5 times in 4 months. Treatment involved correction of subluxations of the occiput, thoracic spine and pelvis; fascial release of the right and left sternocleidomastoid and right pectoralis minor muscle; nutritional support for the adrenal, thymus, parotid glands and proteolytic enzymes. The mother of the patient reported that within 2 days of the first treatment, the patient’s ears started popping and he was beginning to notice improvement in his hearing. Over the next 4 months the patient, his parents and teacher noticed his improvement in hearing. At the end of 4 months his hearing was once again normal.

Conclusion: Conservative measures for treating otitis media, acute or serous, should be considered due to the over prescription of antibiotic and steroid use and the inherent invasiveness of tube placement. Other studies showing the effectiveness of chiropractic adjustment in otitis media should be evaluated also. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:167-169)

Key Indexing Terms: Earache; Otitis Media with Effusion; Case Management; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

Cecilia A. Duffy, D.C., D.I.B.A.K.

Abstract: Objective: To present a case history of chronic (20 months) Osgood-Schlatter disease successfully treated with AK technique.

Clinical Features: An 11 year old female presented with left knee pain of 20 months duration. The pain was over the anterior knee with any physical activity and continued when the activity was halted. Prolonged rest periods would provide relief of the pain. A medical orthopedist performed an x-ray exam and diagnosed Osgood-Schlatter disease.

Intervention and Outcome: Examination of the left knee revealed an enlarged tibial tuberosity that was painful to palpation. Range of motion of the knee was normal and painless. There was bilateral pronation of the feet. Structural corrections over a 2 month period included category I pelvic lesion; fixations in the thoracic spine; left medial quadriceps weakness corrected by neurolymphatic reflex and T10 subluxation reduction; left sartorius weakness corrected by NL reflex and category II; left peroneus tertius corrected by reduction of a lateral talus and posterior calcaneus bilaterally; fascial release of the left hamstring; reactivity of the left quadriceps to the left hamstring; and reactivity of the left psoas to the diaphragm. Foot orthotics were prescribed for the bilateral pronation. She was treated 4 times in a 2-month period and was rendered asymptomatic.

Conclusion: A case history of long standing Osgood-Schlatter’s disease in an 11-year-old female is successfully managed to an asymptomatic state using AK methods. (Collected Papers International College of Applied Kinesiology, 1998-1999;1:171-172)

Key Indexing Terms: Knee Joint; Osteochondritis; Case Management; Treatment; Chiropractic; Kinesiology, Applied

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